World Coins Dictionary of Numismatic Names C.

Cabes. An African mone.y of account.
Sec Boss.
Cache. A copper coin issued by France
from 1720 to 1837 for its possessions in
Pondichery and Karikal on the Coromandel
Coast. Conf. Kas.
There are a large number of varieties,
for a detailed account of which, see Zay
(pp. 273-285).
Cadiere. A billon coin of France issued
for Dauphiny by Charles V (1364-1380),
and retained by his successor Charles VI.
.S'^e Hoffmann (ii. 43).
Anne, Queen of France and Duchess of
Bretagiie, struck a gold type, the Cadiere
d'Oro, circa 1498. Conf. Engel and Serrure
(iii. 972).
Caduceati. See Nummi Cadueeati.
Cagliaresco, or Callaresifos. A small
copper coin of Cagliari which must not be
confused with the Cagliarese. It was originally
struck by Charles II (1665-1700),
of tlie value of one sixth of the Soldo, or
one three-hundredth of the Scudo. In 1711
it was reduced to one half of its original
Cagliarese. A copper coin of Cagliari,
in the island of Sardinia. It was first struck
by the Kings of Spain as rulers of Sardinia
in the sixteenth century, and the
coinage extends to the beginning of the
nineteenth century under the House of
Savoy. Jlultiples of three Cagliaresi were
issued as late as the reign of Victor Emanuel
I (1814-1821). It is usually computed
at two Denari.
Cagnolo. The popular name for a billon
coin issued at Mantua by Giovanni
Francesco, a leader of the people. It had
on the obverse the figure of a dog, and on
the reverse a cross with the inscription
Cagnone, meaning "money of the strangers,"
is. according to the Ri vista ItaVuind
di NiiiiiisDiatica (ix. 86), a coin mentioned
in a ])roclamation issued at Milan in 1520;
its nniuinal value was three Soldi.
Caime. An inconvertible paper currency
used in Turkey and Cyprus and abolished
in 1879.
The word Kahti, plural Kuime, in Turkish,
means "upright," and comes to be used
for a bond, hence for the Treasury note.
Caixa, or Caxa. A copper coin formerly
used in the Malay Peninsula ; the name is
a Portuguese word derived from the Hindu
Kasu, or Kas. The common word cash
iq.v.) comes from this root.
A Dutch writer in the latter part of the
sixteenth century refers to it as being of
the size of the Duit, but with a hole in the
centre. He adds that two hundred Caixas
are eipial to one Sata, and five Satas have
the value of a Carolns Gulden or a Portuguese
Houtman, in his Journual (June 11,
1596), kept in the Straits of Sunda, states
that one hundred and sixteen Caxas are
equal to one Spanish Real. Conf. Netscher
and v.d. Chijs (p. 152).
Birch, in his Commentaries, Hakluyt
Soc'y (ii. 128 ff), states that Albuquerque,
the Governor General, ordered a coinage
for Malacca in 1510, as follows: Pieces of
2 Caixas (tin) = 1 Dinheiro ; 10 Dinheiros
(tin) = 1 Soldo; 10 Soldos (tin) = 1 Bastardo;
5 Bastardos (tin) = 1 Malaque
(silver), or 1 Catholico (gold).
Calculus. The Latin name for a
counter (q.v.).
Calderilla. A Spanish copper coin
struck by Philip IV, circa 1636 to 1654. Its
value fluctuated, for while originally equal
to eight Maravedis, specimens occur couhterstamped
for twelve Maravedis.
Callaresifos. Sec Cagliaresco.
Cambist. A banker. Cambistry. The
science of exchange. From the Italian
camhista, from cambio, meaning exchange.
Ruding (ii. 138) states that "in the year
1270, the keeper of the cambium was appointed
to assay the coins throughout the
wliole Kingdom."
Camera. An Italian term, meaning
inonoy (if oxelie(|ii('r, and usually lound in
(•(injunction with tlio name of a coin, e.g.,
Kioi'iiii (li Caniei'a, Dueati di Cainora, etc.
Camiilino. A silver coin of Corre^frio
which hears on the oliverse a hust of C'amillo
of Austria, Count of Corregfiio (If)!)?-
1606). Its value was two Soldi.
Cammacks. Kudinfr (ii. in2"l states
thai ill llic chise of the ei^'liteenth century
"the copper c(iina>;e of Ireland was in an
infinitely hetter state compared with the
silver coinafje of Enjijland. The greater
part of it. however, was not mint coin, but
what was called ('anuuac'.s, being half
pence made by a person of that name, a
proprietor of cojjpcr mines, with a device
u|)on it, not the King".s face."
Campulus. A coin mentioned in con-
.jniu'lidn with the rentals of the Ronuin
Catholic Church. l)u Cange (ii. 67) thinks
that it pi-obabl.v signifies the revenue attached
to a small field.
Canaries. Francis (Jrose, in his Dictionarij
of thr Vuhjnr Totuiuc, 1785, states
that this is a slang luime for Guineas; the
reference is of course to the yellow color.
Candareen. The name given by foreigucis
in the Far East to the Chinese Pen
or Fun, the one hundredth part of the
Tjiang, or Tacl {q.v.), and the tenth part of
the Mace (q.v.). Pieces are struck in the
following denominations: 7.2 Caiidareens,
e(i\ial to one tenth of a Dollar, and 8.6
Caiidareens. e(pial to one twentieth of a
Dollar; also known as five cents. As a
money of account it is worth about 1.4
cents. Scr Ciri(>n and Fen.
Candle Thaler. A jiopular name for the
liiclit Thaler ((/.c).
Canella, or Onga. A deuoinination issued
in 1S-|:5 and 1845 under Maria II of
Portugal for ll()zambi(iue. It consisted of
an oblong bar of silver, bearing on one side
an M,aiid on the reverse oncj.v—6 crs (Cruzados).
The piece is also known as Patsica
{q.v.). See Teixcira de Aragao (xiv. 4),
and Fernaiides (p. .'J.IS).
Canopy Type. A designation employed
to classify English silver coins. Thus on
.some of the pennies of William I the term
is used where a full-face bust under a
canopy occurs.
Canteim. A copper coin of Bulgaria.
jS'cr Stilt iiika.
Capellone. From the Italian word cajxllii.
meaning '•hair." The name given to
a silver coin of Modena struck by Francesco
III d'Fste (17:i7-17S()), and distinguished
by the long hair on the portrait.
Its value was one third of the Lira.
Capones. Du Cange cites a document of
the year 1250 reading sf.r dinariox pro (/iiolibii
f(jco . . . (lui caponcx Ii. Muriae iiuilruixnihir.
etc., and assumes that this was
a triliiitc to the cliiii-eh.
Capuciae. A name given to a variety of
Follari struck at Hagiisa at the end of the
thirteenth century. The diadem and toga
on the figure on the obvei-se gave it the appearance
of being covered with a cap.
hence the po])ular designation. A statute
of the year 12!)4 mentions, ftillarl. qui
(liciiiilttr (•(ipuc'utr.
Caput Aspergellis. .SVr Skins of Animals.
Carambole. A name given to the silver
ficu of eighty Sols issued by Louis Xl\' in
1686 for Flanilcrs. The reverse has a
crowned shield with the (|uartered arms of
France and Hurgiindy. There were also
struck divisions consisting of halves, (inarfers.
eighths, and sixteenths;
Carantano, also variously written Carano,
and Cliarantano, and jiossibly a corruption
of Carinthia. The general name
in Italy for the (irosso Tirolino. It is thus
referred to as early as 1501) in .some correspondence
between the Emperor Maximilian
and Giaeimio IV, Appiani, Signor
of Piombino. During the sixteenth century
and later the name was common in
Venice and other parts of Xorthern Italy
to indicate the Kreuzer. and it was est)
ecially used for the Austrian Kreuzer
struck by Francis .losejili I for Milan, etc.
Multiples of five and ten Carantini of this
issue exist in silver. Conf. Quarantaiio,
Cara o Sella. A Spanish term meaning
"face or seal" and corresponding to the
English "Heads or Tails" {q.v.).
Carapace Money. A name given to a
variet\' of Chinese money, or tokens, issued
in the time of the Emperor Wii Ti of the
Mail Dyiia.sty (B.C. 140-86). It is described
in the Ch'ien I'li T'lni;) Cliih. a rare native work. The obverse, or upper
side, resembles the back of a tortoise, with
scales, wliile the lower side is hollow, traversed
by two "roads." The name is due,
probably, to the shape and design of the
objects themselves, rather than to the ancient
custom of using tortoise-shell in barter.
For detailed information concerning
types and designs, see Ramsden, in Am.
Journal of Numismatics (xlv. p. 70).
Carasco Dollar. The name given to one
of the coins issued by the Constitutional
Provisional Government of Mexico. They
were struck by orders of General Carasco,
at Culiacan, the capital of Sinaloa, in November,
Carat. Kelly (p. 49) mentions this as a
small Arabian coin and equal to one eightieth
of a Piastre. He may have it confused
with Kabir {q.v.).
Caratto. Another name for the Picciolo
(q.v.), but speciall.v applied to the
coinage of Stio. The Caratto, in copper,
was issued here during the reign of Lorenzo
Ginstiniani Banea (1483).
Carci. The plural of Carzia (q.v.).
Cardecu. See Quart d'Ecu.
Card Money. The name given to a
varietj- of jiromissory notes written on the
backs of playing cards, which were issued
by Inteiulant de Meules, in 1685, in Canada,
for the payments in arrears to soldiers.
The issue continued for over thirty
j'ears. See Breton (p. 11, et seq.).
Carival. A former silver coin of Bombay,
the tifth part of a Rupee, and equal to
twelve Paisa. See Noback (p. 64).
Carl d'or. A gold coin of Brunswick
which takes its name from Charles William
Ferdinand (1780-1806). It was
usually computed the same as the Pistole,
i.e.. at five Tluder in gold. The name was
retained, after the death of Duke Charles,
until the end of 1834, when a new monetary
system went into effect. The name is
sometimes written Karl d'or.
Carle. A P''rench nickname for the Carolus
Carlin. A silver coin of France struck
for Dauphiny by Charles V (1364-1380).
See Hoffmann (12).
Carlino. A gold coin of Sardinia issued
by Carlo Emanuele III (1730-1773), and
of the value of about thirty-five Lira in the
present monetary s.ystem.
His successor, Vittorio Amedeo III
(1773-1796), struck the Carlino Nnovo in
1790. This was a much larger coin, equal
to about one hundred and twenty Lira.
Carlino. A silver coin, the twelfth part
of the Ducato (q.v.), issued by Charles II
of Anjou, King of Naples and Sicil.y (1285-
1309). It was also called Gigliato [q.i'.),
and the type was copied in the Florentine
series. By an ordinance of April 20, 1818,
the Carlino was made the tenth of the Ducato
and equal to one hundred Grani for
Naples, or two hundred Baiocci for Sicily.
The Carlino of Bologna appeared under
Clement VII (1523-1534), and was issued
almost uninterruptedly until the middle of
the seventeenth century.
In Malta the Carlino was struck in silver
of the value of half a Tarin as early as
the middle of the sixteenth century; its
value, however, was reduced, and luider
Raimondo Despuig (1736-1741) copper
Carlini were issued.
Carlino Papale. A silver coin of Rome
of the G rosso type. It was first struck b.v
Urban V in 1367, and was issued b.y Boniface
IX to commemorate his jubilee in
1400. Karlini Papali are referred to in a
Milanese ordinance of 1474, and again in
a tariff of Bologna of 1588. This coin was
gradually reduced in weight, and eventuall.
v the Grosso took its place.
Carolin, plural Caroliner. A gold coin
of Sweden of the value of ten Francs. The
name is probably taken from Charles John
XIV (Bernadotte). It was last struck in
1868 by Charles XV.
The same designation is also applied to
a silver coin of Sweden issued b.v Charles
XI and Charles XII. See Karolin.
Carolingian Money. A general term for
thi' coins striR-k during the Carolingian
jieriod in France, i.e., from Pepin (752-
768) to Hugh Capet (obit. 987). The
name is derived from ("harlemagne, who
introduced monetarj' i-eforms. See Engel
and Serrure {passim), and Blanehet (i.
Carolus. A base silver or billon coin
struck by, and named after Charles VIII of France (1483-1498). Tt probably received
its name from the hirjre letter K. on
the obverse. It had a value of ten Deniers
Toiiriiois, and, besides the re-riilar
type, tliere were special i.ssues for Hrcta^
iie and l)aMi)luny. See Hoffman {passim).
A proelamatioii of Henry VIII,
datetl November 5, 1522, fi.Ked its value at
four-pence sterling. See Rndino; (i- -W^^)
Carolus, or Carolus Gulden. A silver
(iuldcn issued by Charles \' for tlie XetluM'-
iands. Tliere is an extensive series of them
for Hesan(;on. They befrin about ir)4(), and
the name appears to have been retained
until the end of the sixteenth centui'v,
even after the death of the Emperor.
Carolus Dollar. The common name for
the Spanish-American silver Dollar or
piece of eijiht Keales when used for trade
in the far East. The term is confined to
the issues of Charles ill (1759-1789) and
Charles IV (1789-1808).
Caron. A name given to the billon
Marcpie in the Reunion Islands.
Caroub. Sec Kharub.
Carrarino. A silver coin of Padua,
sti-nck by Jaeopino da Carrara (l.'iSOl;!')"))
and his successor Francesco I da
Carrara (1355-1:588). The name is de-
I'ived from the prominent fig-ure of a carni.
or cart, f)ii the obverse, which may possibly
be the orijirin of the name of the
govern ill": family.
Carrettini. A general name for the
money issued by the Marchesi del Caretto,
Signors of t'ortemiglia. In the Rivista
Ifaliana rU N'lnnistnatica (.xiii. 79), a chronicle
of Piacenza of the year 1255 is cited
which reads: eudein anno cle mense decnnhris
iiicrra tores {eeerunt fieri monetnm
itot'ffin (ipud iiKirchiuncs de Cnrretto quam
nppelUthant carrettini.
Cartwheel. A nickname given to the silver
Diillar of the Cnited States, probably
on account of its size ccmipared to all of
the other coins. The term is applied to
any large coin that is unwieldy. See Boulton
's Twopence.
Carucage. A tax of one penny formerly
imposed in England on every ])lough. See
Eleemosyna Aratri.
Carzia. The Italian e([uivalent of Kreuzer
(([.v.). It is a])plied to copper coins
issued by the Prioli Family for Nicosia in
the sixteenth century, etc.
Carzia. The popular name to indicate
the fi-artional jjart of the money of ("yprus,
and usually aj)plie<l to the Danaro.
The term was copied by the \'enetians in
the sixteenth century.
Case. A slang exjiression for a dollar.
Till' etymology is uncertain, l)ut it may be
a corruption of th(> Fi'encli caisse, i.e.,
Cash, in commerce, signifies ready
money, or actual coin paid on the instant,
and in this sense it has been in use since
the latter part of the sixteenth century.
The etymology appeai-s to be from the
French word caisse, a coffer or chest in
which money was kept.
Two early instances of the use of the
tei-m are to be found in Saffron Watden,
by Thomas Nashe, 1596 (106), to wit, "He
put liis hand in his jiocket but . . . not
to ]>luck out anie cash;" and in Shakespeare's
King Henry V (ii. 1, 120).
Cash. The name given by foreigners to
the Chinese copper coin with a scpiare hole
in the centre. Tlie term is probably derived
thi-ough the Portuguese word Caixa, from
the Telugu and Karanese word Kasii (cj.v.),
and the Tamil Kas, whi<-h, in turn, jjrobabl_\-
conu^s from the Sanskrit Kiirsha, or
Karsha|)ana. The Chinese call this coin
by various names, Ch'ien (q.iK) being the
most common. The more modern Chinese
term is Wen (q.v.), which is the word expres.
sed in Chinese characters on many of
the modern copper coins that bear as well
the English word Cash. The Chinese Li,
the thousandth part of a Tael, is the e(piivalent
of the word Cash.
The coin known as Cash hius been for
about two thousand years of an almost uniform
design, circular in shape, and with a
scjuare hole in the centre, the object of the
latter feature being for the purpose of
stringing (a string of Cash being known as
a Kuan, Ch'iian or Tiao, q.v.).
These coins are cast and .sometimes are
of fine brass, while others are a mixture
of coii])er, spelter, and iron.
The inscriptions on these coins since
A.n. 621 are mostly uniform. The characters to the riglit and left can be translated
"current coin" or "currency," while
tliose at the top and bottom are the names
of the emperors, or more properly the
name under which their reign is known.
For the most part the value has been one
11 or one tliousandth, though multiples of
two and five have lieeu made from early
times. Durinfi' the nineteenth century, folliiwing
the Tai Ping rebellion tokens up
to lOUO cash in denomination were issued
In 1895 some improvement was made
in the coinage, the pieces being made of
uniform size and struck instead of cast.
About the year U)()(), when silver was
no longer circulated in China by weight,
but by value, copper was struck of one
general design for the different provinces
into which the country is divided. The
new denomination consisted of 1, 2, 5, 10,
and 20 cash. The 10 cash in Kwang Tung
Province bore the inscription one cent,
pi'obably due to the influence of the Hong
Kong coinage. These new coins had a
dragon on one side, and the central hobwas
no longer retained except for the
Kwang Tung issues. Conf, also Ramsden,
in Spink (xxiii. 163-169), and see Kas.
Cash. The English word for the Hindu
Kas or Kasu iq.v.). The word cash is
used on the copper coins of Mysore about
1830 under Krishna Raja ITdaij'ar (179!)-
1868). The inscriptions read XL cash,
rare 21/2, ^Vi, fincl 121/2 cash pieces have
the value in Kanarese numerals.
Certain of the modern co])per coins of
Travancore have their values expressed in
cash as well as a number of the copper
coins of the British East India Co. In
Humatra it was a money of account and
worth about tliree cents.
Casquete. >^rp Timbre de Valencia.
Cassa Thaler. A silver coin of the
Ducliy of lierg struck by Joachim Mnrat
in 1807. It is frequently referred to as
tiie Ka.ssenthaler, but the reverse has the
insci'iptiou 1. i!i':R(iiscHER. cassa. thaler.
Cassiusgroschen. The name given to a
silver Groschen of Bonn which has on the
reverse a view of the church of St. Cassius,
the patron saint of the city. They
were issued under Archbishop Ilenrv IT,
Earl of Virneburg (1304-1332).
Castellano. The name applied in general
to any gold coin bearing the armorial
shield of Castile, but specially to such as
were one-fiftieth of the gold marc in
weight. Under Pedro I, King of Castde
(1350-1368), the Castellano was computed
at thirty Maravedis.
Castoriati. Sec Denarius.
Castorland Token. A silver pattern
struck in Paris in 1796 by Duvivier, for
a French settlement in the northern part
of the State of New York. It has on the
reverse the figiire of Ceres and a beaver
in the exergue, with the motto salve magna
parens prugum.
For a detailed description of the token
and the Colony see Ilickcox, Ilisforical
Account of American Coiminr. 1858 (p.
85), and Amcr. Jourunl of Numhmatics
(iv. 34). _
Castroni. A general term for the Grossi
struck in the Duchy of Castro by Pier
Luigi Farnese (1545-1547). These usually
have the inscri]ition VRii. castricvs.
Castruccino. A silver coin of Lucca
which receives its name from Castruccio
Castrucci (1316-1328). It has a crowned
bust portrait figure holding a sceptre, and
on the reverse the inscription imperialis,
with LVCA in the exergue. Its value was
eiiua! to the mezzo Grosso.
Cataa Hamsie. A gold coin of the modern
Egyptian series of the value of five
Piastres. It was introduced A. II. 1255 or
A.D. 1839.
Catanesi. Forgeries of ancient Greek
coins are said to be known by this term
in Sicily. The name owes its origin to
the activities in this line of the notorious
bj'others b>iauchi of Catania.
Catechismusthaler, or Glaubensthaler.
A medallic silver Thaler issued by Ernst.
Duke of Sachsen Gotha in 1668. It has
the articles of belief from the catechism
on both obverse and reverse. See Madai
Catedra. The Spanish eriuivalent of the
Chaise d'Or and valued at 33 Marabotini.
Old French documents mention the
Cathedra in alluding to the same coin.
Catholico. A gold coin introduced by
All)U(|uer(iue, Governor General of Malacca
in 1510. See Caixa.
Cattle used for payments. See Pecunia,
Nowt Geld, ami Animals.
 Catty, (>!• Chin. The Cliiiiese pouiul,
e()iii|)iis<'(l 111' sixteen Taels or Ijiaiifrs, aiul
\vei<;liiiifr apprdxiiiiately one ami one third
of our pounds.
Catty, or Chang. A Siamese wci^lit of
2.(i7') His., avoirdupois. Treasury pieees
of a s|)heri('al foi'ni iiave hcen made in
silver of tlie value of 1. i/.., i/j, i/J, anil
,,. Cattys, or in Tieals 80, 40, 20, 10,
:ind .').
Catty. Si'i' llahar.
Caturvim^atimana. Scr Krishnala.
Cauci. A term emjiloyed hy Italian
numismatie writers to indicate coins of
concave shape.
Cavalier. A name <;iven to coins hearinjr
ou tiie obverse tiie figure of a Uin>:iit
on lioi-seback. The term is ;t'nerally ap-
1)1 ied to the French and Flemish series,
I he provinces of the Ijow Countries retaininjr
the name llijder iq.v.). (Jonseipiently
the Cavalier d'Or is the same as
the Goiideii Rijder, and the ('avalier d'
Arjjent. is the Rijderdaelder. A silver
(iros au Cavalier was struck bv .Tohn II,
Count of Ilainaut (1280-1304).'
Cavalitti. A nickname used in Bolojjna
f(U' the (Jrossi of Ferrara which bore the
figure of St. George on horseback.
Cavalla. According to the Corpus Niimniorum
ItnUcorum (xxiv. f)), this was
a billon coin of Antonio I, Prince of Monaco
{1701-1731) of the value of four
Cavallina. A necessity coin issued for
Candia under Venetian rule in \'Vi\ and
1.573 to sujiply the lack of Danari. S])eeimens
occur in both coppei- and base silver.
It receives its name fi-om Marino
Cavalli, the governor.
Cavallo. A copper coin issued by Ferdinand
1 of Aragon while I'uler of Naples
and Sicily (1458-1494), which obtains its
name from the figure of a hoi-se on the reverse.
This device was abandoned in the
sixteenth century, but the coin nevertheless
retained its name.
An idea of the small value of the coin
can be readily obtained when we consider
that 1200 went to the Ducato (q.v.) and
that it was the twelfth pai-t of a (Jraiio, as
the issues under Ferdiiuiiul IV dated 1786
to 1797 state.
The coin was consequently largely struck
in multiples, and pieces of 2, 3,
(i, and
II Cavalli are common.
Cavallotto. A silver coin which, like
the Cavallo, derives its name from the
figure of the horse on the revei-sc.
It was struck for Asti by Louis XI 1 of
France early in the sixteenth century; at
Carmagnola under Michele Antonio (l.')()4-
1528) ; at Correggio by Camillo and Fabrizio
( 1 580-1 r)it7 ) ; at Sabbioneta by Vespasiano
Gonzaga (155!)-1,591) ; etc.
Caveer. 8ee Kabir.
Caveria. l)u Cange (ii) cites an ordinance
of Saiicho \'1I, King of Navarre
(1194-1234), in which viij'niti raverias are
l-eferi-ed to.
Cawne, or Kahan. A money of account
in the JIaldive Islands and" equal to
1280 Cowries (q.v.).
Caxa. See Caixa.
Cecchine. A corrujition of Zecchino
(q.v.) and conf. Checc|uin and Chickino,
Ben Jonson, in his jday Volpoiic. l(i()5
(i. 3), uses the phrase "When euery W(U'd
... is a cecchine."
Ceiniog. An old Welsh word meaning
a penny. See Cianog.
Ceitil, also called Real Preto, the earliest
co|)|)er coin of Portugal, of the value of
one-sixth of the Real, first issued bv Alfonso
III (1248-1279). It has usually a
castle with three towers occupying a large
part of the field, and was extensively
struck at Lisbon, Porto, and Ceuta. The
latter town in Northern Africa is supposed
to have supplied the name of the
Cella. See Aquilino.
Cenoglego. A luime given to a varietv
of the silver Soldo issued in Venice under
Francesco Dandolo (1326-1339), and his
successors Bartolomeo Gradenigo and Andrea
Dandolo. The name is derived from
the kneeling figure of the Doge on the
Cent. The name of a copper coin of the
Fnited States of North America, and eipial
to the one-hundredth part of the Dollar.
The word was fii-st used on the so-called
Washington Cent of 1783, but the regular
coinage of the Cent and half Cent was
not authorized until 1792.
 For ail early use of the word in the
history of the United States coinage see
Am. Journal of Numismatics (xv. 77).
The Cents are classified according to
their devices, e.g., Fillet head, Turban
head, Indian head, etc. They were first
struck in 17!*;i and every year thereafter
witli the exception of 1815. In 1857 the
size was reduced.
The half Cent was abolished in 1857;
the two-Cent pieces were issued from 1864
to 1873; the nickel three-Cent pieces were
issued from 1865 to 1889 ; the silver three-
Cent pieces from 1851 to 1873 ; and the
nickel five-cent pieces were authorized in
1866 and are still in use. For four years,
1875 to 1878, silver twenty-Cent pieces
were coined.
The Cent as an equivalent of the onehundredth
part of the Dollar is also used
in Briti-sli North America, British Guiana,
British Honduras, the Danish West Indies,
Hawaii, Fiji, Liberia, Cuba, Guam, the
Philippine islands, Porto Rico, Noi-th Borneo,
Ilong Kong, China, the Chinese
Treaty Ports, Labuan, Sierra Leone, Sarawak,
and the Straits Settlements.
In Ceylon, Mauritius and Seychelles it
is the one-hundredth part of a Rupee ; and
in the Netherlands and the Dutch Colonies
the one-hundredth part of the Florin
or Gulden.
Centavo. A copper coin of Mexico,
Central America, and many countries in
South America. It is almost uniformly
the one-hundredth part of a Peso.
Centeiiariae, f)r Centenariae Formae
were large gold medallions e([ual to one
hundred Aurei, said by Lampridius, Sev.
Alex. (39) to have been struck by the Emperor
Centenionalis, Centenionalis Communis,
or Nummus Centenionalis. A coin first
mentioned in an edict of Constantius II
and Julian of the year 356 A.D. It was
of bronze, slightly washed with silver, and
weighed between 3.55 and 2.60 grammes.
It was first introduced by Constantine the
Great and continned to be issued in great
numl)ei's until after Arcadius. It was the
hundredth part of the silver Siliqua. See
Babelon, Traite (i. 612-614).
Centesimo. A copper coin of various
countries, which, as its name indicates, is
the one-hundredth part of some larger and
fre(inently standard coin. Thus, in Italy,
Lombardy, Venice, and San Marino, 100
Centesimi equal one Lira; in Uruguay 100
Centesimi ecjual one Peso ; etc.
Centime. A copper coin ; the one-hundredth
part of a Franc. It bears this relationship
in France and the French Colonies,
Monaco, Belgiiun, Bulgaria, Luxemburg,
Switzerland, etc.
In Haiti the Centime is the one hundredth
part of the Gourde.
The multiples of the Centime exist in
both copper and nickel.
Centime. The Spanish equivalent of
the Centime and Centesimo. in Spain it
is the one hundredth of the Peseta, and
before 1871 it was the one hundredth of
the Escudo. It is used in the same relation
to a larger coin in Morocco, Venezuela,
Costa Rica, and the Dominican Republic.
Centupondium. See Talent.
Centussis. A multiple of one hundred
Asses after the first reduction, and used
as a money of account.
Cepayqua. See Leal.
Cercle. A French nickname for any
piece of money in allusion to its shape.
Cervette, or Cervettoni. According to
the liivista Italiana di Numismatica (xxii.
39), this was a coin issued in Casale during
the war of 1628. It received its name
from the figure of a stag on the obverse.
Cervia. A silver coin of Massa di Lunigiana,
a fief of the Malaspino Family.
It appears to have been originally issued
under Alberico I Cibo (1559-1623), with
a figure of St. Peter on the reverse, and
a stag on the obverse. The latter gave
rise to the nickname Lupetta for the coin,
as the stag was supposed to bear a resemblance
to a wolf.
The Cervia was also a coin of Casale
Monferrato struck by William II Paleologo
(1494-1518) ; it bore the figure of a
stag in an enclosure. Promis (i. 185) cites
a proclamation of Charles III, Duke of
Savoy, dated 1529 which jn-ohibits monete
et (linari di Monferrato nomati cervoni.
Chahar Goshah, meaning a square piece,
is the lunne given to a gold coin of Akbar,
Emjieror of Hindustan, and valued at
thirt}' Rupees. See Sihan.sah.
Chaine Money Chazza
Chain Cent. The p()]iular name for the
earliost tyix' of eoppor feiits issued by the
(idveriiment of the United States in 179:J.
There are several varieties, one of which
reads ameri.
Chaine Money. See Cliaiiy.
Chaise, or Chaise d'Or. A Preueh jjohl
eoiii striu'k ()ri<i:iiially by Philij) 1\' (1285-
1:514) and copied by Edward HI in the
Anglo-Gallic series. It received this name
because the ruler is seated on a Gothic
throne or chair of state.
A similar coin was issued in Germany
by Ludwijr IV (1314-1347) and the type
was co]iied in the Low Countries under the
name of Clinckaert (q.v.).
Chakram, or Chuckram. A silver coin
of the Hindu State of Travancore issued
in the eighteenth century and later. There
are multiples and divisions, and report
says that ("liakrams of gold had once been
coined, but this, though probable, lacks
The Chakram is e(|ual to sixteen copper
Kas, and is the fourth part of the Fanam.
Conf. Elliot {pussiw).
Chalcidian League. See League Coinage.
Chalcus, or Chalkos. The earliest Greek
copper coin and the eightli i)art of the
Obol (q.v.). The etymology is jirobably
from Xx/.xo?, i.e., ore, or from Clialcis, the
city that commanded the market for copper.
It is supposed to have been first struck
in the time of the Pelo]ionnesian War, and
was largely used by the successors of Alexander
the Great.
The nndtiples of the ("lialcus were the
Dekachalk (= 10 units), Octoclialk (= 8
units), Pentachalk (= 5 units), Tetrachalk
(= 4 units), Trichalk (= 3 units),
Dichalk (^ 2 units). It was subdivided
into the Hemichalk (=1/2 unit).
Chalk, tiec Chalcus.
Challaine. See Chazza.
Challies and half Challies are copper
coins issued by the Dutch Government for
Ceylon. They are the same as the Duit
Chalmers* Tokens. The name given to
a series of three silver pieces issued in
1783 by I. Chalmers, a goldsmith of An-
napolis, Maryland. They consist of the
Shilling, six-pence and three-pence denominations.
For details, etc., see Crosb.v.
Chalongia, or Chaloigne. I)u Cange
cites this as an examjile of how the word
Schilling is corrupted in media'val documents.
The word occurs in ordinances of
Peter, P>isho]) of Laon, of 1377 and 1386.
Chamsi. Tiie name given to the one
eighth Pia.stre in the Egyptian series. It
is a base silver coin of the value of five
Chang. The Siamese mime for Cattv
Ch'an Pi, (.r Ch'an Pu. See Pu.
Chany, or Chaine Money. A dialect
coi'iniption of Cliiua money and ai)|)lied to
the porcelain tokens issued by tiie I'inxton
China Works in East Derbyshire, England.
These pieces are oval in shape, flat on one
side and convex on the other. The convex
side bears the value in large figures.
Ch'ao. One of the Chinese names for
their paper money.
Chaouri. See Abbjisi.
Charantano. See Carantano.
Charms, i.e., metallic tokens with pictures
in lieu of inscriptions, were used in
Japan and Korea for money at times. See
E Sen.
Cham. A silver coin of India and
e(|uivalent to the quarter Rupee. See
Charon's Obol. .sVr Nanlum.
Charta Magna Thaler. Another name
for tlie Convention Thaler struck in 181S
by Ma.ximilian Joseph 1, King of Bavaria.
It has on tlie reverse a figure of a tablet
beai'ing the inscription charta m.mjna
Chasperli. See Kasperle.
Chaubinbank. See Chulon.
Chavo. The native name in Porto Rico
for the Spanish copper pieces in use on
this island.
Chazza. A tin coin of Malacca and
pi-ol>ab!.\- a later name for the Hastardo
(q.v.). William Barret in his Travels
(eirea 1 .').')()), .says:
"For the mony of Malacca the least
niony current is of tiiuie stamped with
tlie Amies of Portugall and 12 of these make a Chazza. Tlie Chazza is also of
tiiine with the said Amies and two of
these make a Challaine. The Challaine is
of tinne with the said Armes and forty
of these make a Tanga of Goa good mony
))iit not made in Malacca."
Checquin, Chekin, and Chequin are all
eornijitions of Sequin, the latter being a
collo(|uial form of the Zecehino {q.v.). In
llnUuut's Voyages, 1599 (ii. i. 152), he
sa.ys, "Eiiery man a chekin, which is seuen
shillings and two pence sterling." Brome,
Novella. 1632 (i. 2), vises the term "IIcre"s
a thousand checquines.
Massinger, in A Venj Woman, 1655 (iii.
1 ) , uses the form '
' chekeen '
' ; and Wheler,
in his Journey to Greece, 1682 (vi. 413),
has "chequin." Conf. Chickino, infra.
A table adojited in the Province of Maryland
in 1763, as a standard for jiayments,
mentions the Arabian Chequin as equal to
108 pounds of tobacco. By an act of 1781,
after Maryland became a State, fixed valuations
were put on foreign coins, and
among others Arabian Chequins are quoted
as equal to thirteen shillings and sixpence.
See Gubber.
Chelin. A corruption of Siiilling, and
applied in lower Canada first to the silver
twenty cent piece i.ssued in 1858, and latei*
to the twenty-five cent piece which appeared
in 1870.
Chelonai, or "Tortoises." The Greek
popular name for the money of Aegina
bearing the tortoise type.
Chequin. See Checquin.
Cherafin. A silver coin of Goa. See
Cherassi. The name of a modern Persian
gold coin struck at coronations and
of varying value. iSVe Kelly (p. 358).
Chesle-money. An English dialect
word used in Gloucestershire by the country
people to designate the Roman coins
which are frequently found in ploughing,
Chhi-Ke. A Tibetan coin of the value
of tlirce Annas. See Tang-Ka.
Chia Ch'ien. See Yu Chia Ch'ien.
Chianflune. See Cianfrone.
Chiao. Tlie modern Chinese name for
the 10 cent coin. In some provinces the
5, 10, 20 and 50 cent pieces are expressed
^^y Vz^ 1; 2 and 5 Chiao instead of by Mace
and Candareens. See Hao.
Chiappe di Forte. Promis (ii. 12) cites
this as a money current in Turin in 1335
of which 28 were equal to a Grosso.
Chiavarino. A copper coin of Frinco
issued by tiie Counts Ercole and Claudio
Mazzetti" (1581-1601). The word Chiavajo
in Italian means the Keeper of the Keys,
and the coin receives its name from the
Papal type of the keys and tiara which
appear on this issue.
Chickino, and Chickquin, are corruptions
of Zecehino [q.v.). Caesar Frederiei
in H<ikluyt's Voyages, 1583 (ii. 342)
mentions "Chiekinos which be pieces of
gold woorth seuen sliillings a piece sterling."
W. Parry, Trauels of Sir A. Sherley,
1601 (30) uses the expression "Feeding
her with two cliickins. " Chapman, in
May Day, 1611, has "Half a chickeene to
cut's throat," and Greaves in Seraglio,
1653 (9), .says, "Six hundred thousand
chic(iuins yearly. '
In the first quarto edition of Shakespeare's
Pericles, 1609 (iv. 2), we find mention
of "three or four tiiousaiul clieckins,
but in the later (piartos, and in the third
and fourth folios (1664, 1685), the same
word is written "chickins" and "chickeens,
" tlnis indicating that there was no
fixed rule foi' the spelling.
Ch'ien, also written Tsien or Tsen. The
common Chinese term for money which has
been thus used from very early times. It
probably superseded the woi'd Ch'uan
{q.v.). Specifically it applied to the round
copper coins, they being the only coins
made, and is synonomous to our word
cash (q.v.). It originally meant the Hoe
coins as the word was used for a hoe. The
word has been until recent times written
Tsien. It is also a weight and is then
known as a Mace (q.v.) hy foreigners, it being
the one tenth i)art of the Liang or Tael.
Certain coins of tiie Hsien Feng period liad
the weight thus expressed on them, as well
as the first struck Kwang-tung cash, which
bore "Treasury weight, one Ch'ien." The
words Ch'ien Pi are also used as a general
term for copper money. See also Wen and
[ 40 ]
Chienes Chon
III J<ii)iiii the word is Sen (q.v.) ; in
Korea, ('liun or Chon {q.v.) ; in Siam
Saluni;' (i/.r.).
Chienes, or Kiennes. A term found in
an ordinanee of 1:]>S() which reads niinuta
)noncf(i chiintidfit rhiriis chc ad casi coxto
In sonniKi di 15 fritnchi; and a document
of Licf^e of 1382 reads ccrtainc moiinaic
qi(f oil appcloit Kicunrs. Du Canpie assumes
tluit in all iiroliahility tliese are tlie
popuhir names of some coins wilii a figure
of a dofr njiDn them.
Ch'ien Fan. Tlie Cin"nese name for the
coin monids in wliieh tlieir coins from the
earliest times to about 1S90 were east.
Ch'ien Pi. See Ch 'ien.
Chih Pi. The Chinese word now commonly
used for paper money.
Chih-tsi. Sec Kiao-tze.
Chih-tsien. The Chinese word meaniuf,'
standard eoinaj^e.
Chikino, lii<e Chickino, supra, was a coriMiption
of Zeccliino (q.v.). T. Sanders,
in An Unfortunate Voijayc to Tripoli,
158i), says "lend him lOO' chikinos."
Chimfram. The name gjiven to the luilf
Real Port\i<,ni('z issued under Alfonso V
(14;]S-1481 ). Tliese coins were struck at
Lishon and Porto. Tlie word signifies
clippetl and was ajiplied to tliese pieces
on account of their inferior weight.
Chimney Money, also called Hearth
.Money, was a crown duty for every fireplace
in a house, estahlished 14 Charles II
(c. 2). It was ]iroducfive of great discontent
and was abolished by 1 William
and .Mary (Stat. 1. e. 10).
Pejiys, in his Diary, under October 15,
l()()(i, writes, "One moved that the chimneymoney
mi^ht be taken from the King."
Chin, or Kin. The Chinese word for
Catty (q.v.) or pound. The word is found
on certain Ku Pii coins (7.!'.) as a weight
value. Another Chinese character with
the same sound means gold or precious,
and is sometimes used for money. The
word Chin Pi is now commonly used for
gold money. Sec Kin for a si)ecific i)ieee.
China Money. See Chany.
Chinker. A colloiiuial name for anything
that chinks, as a coin or a piece of
Sir Henry Taylor, in Philip \'an Artevelde,
18:34 (ii. 185), inis this jia.s.sage:
"Are men like us to be entrapjied and
sold, and see no money? ... So let us
see .^'onr chinkers.
Chin Tao. See Knife IMoney.
Chiqua. According to Du Cange this
was a small coin issued bv the Hishop of
Grenoble in l:j4:!.
Chiquiney. A eorru])ti()n of Zeeehino
((/.('.) and conf. Chickino and Cliec(|uin,
Coryat, in his Crudities, 1011 (191),
refers to "chests . . . fidl of chicpiineys.
Chise. A Turkish money of account.
See Hentel.
Chitopense. Kuding (i. 197) states that
in 1289 or 1290 the I\Iayor of Bordeaux
"made proclamation that until the feast of
Saint i\Iartin, the Cliito|)enses should still
be current at the rate of five Chitopenses
for four new Pennies, or tlie same nnmbei'
of jietit Tournois.
In 1312 eight Chipotenses wei'e reckoned
to be e(|ual to one Sterling.
Cho Gin, meaning "long silver," is a
name given to oval lumiis of silver, more
or diluted with cojijier, issued in .Japan
as early as IfiOl. They have no right to
be called circulating coin.
Munro states (p. 202) that "the weight
was sup|)()sed to be 43 momme, but owing
to uncouth form and rcnigli casting, tliese
pieces fre(|nently fell slioi't of tiiis amount.
To correct the deficiency, pieces of silver
of various weights were added. These have
been described in some works as Bean
money, but this is (juite incorrect, the expression
Mame Clin, or Bean Silver, having
reference to their usually round or
bean like form. They all iviiresent Paikoku
Ten, the god of wealth, and have
the year jieriod impressed in the centre
of each figure."
Chon, or Chun, generally referred to
collo(iuially as Yopchon, is a Korean word,
and a general term for any copjier coin,
circular in form, and having a s(|nare hole
in tiie centre. Tlie Chinese word is Ch'ien.
The Tang-bak-clion was a copjier coin of
Korea issued in the third Near of the Emperor
Tai, i.e.. A.I). LSfit!, for the |)urpose
of making ii]) the deficit in tiie funds for
building the Kyong-pok palace. It bore cliarat'ters meaning "worth a hundred,"
but having no such real value its use had
to be forced upon the people, causing great
The Tang-au-chon was a copper coin
issued in the twentieth year of the same
Emperor, i.e., A.D. 1883. It had characters
meaning "worth five" on the reverse
and was put into circulation at tlie value
of five of the older coins, but having no
such real value and being similar in size
with the larger varieties f)f the older coins,
it was often used indiscriminately with the
latter. For the silver pieces with enamel
centres sec Daidong Chun.
The modern copper Korean Chon is the
equivalent and almost the counterpart of
the Japanese Sen. In 1894 nickel two
Chon five Fun pieces were issued in great
quantities, and in 1897 silver ten and
twenty Chons, nickel five Chon, and copper
one and half Chons were issued.
Chonen Taiho. See Jiu ni Zene.
Chopped Dollars. The popular designation
for the Me.Kicau silver Dollars
stamped by one or more business firms in
Chinese and Indo-Chinese ports as a token
of their genuineness.
A decision of the United States Treasury
Department dated April 18, 1905 (No.
26281) reads as follows:
"On and after May 1, 1905, the silver
dollar of Mexico will be valued at .'tiO.498,
as proclaimed on April 1, 1905 (Treasury
Decision 26223). The duties on merchandise
imported from countries other
than Mexico, invoiced in so-called Mexican
dollars, will be computed on the bullion
value as heretofore."
In Treasury Decision 26560, wliich gives
the value of foreign coins after July 1,
1905, the Mexican chopped dollar is cited
for the first time, its value being given
as $0,458.
The word "chop" in China, India, etc.,
means an official impression of a seal or
Ovington, in A Voijaye to Snratt, 1696
(251), says: "Upon their Chops, as they
call them" in India, or Seals engraven, are
only Characters, generally those of their
Simmonds, in his Dicfionaru of Trade.
1859, has: "Chhap, an official mark on
weights and measures to indicate their ac-
curac.y ; an eastern Custom-house stamp or
seal on goods that have been examined and
have paid duty."
Cho-tang. Sec Tang-Ka.
Christfest Thaler. See Weihnachts Thaler.
Christian d'Or. A gold coin of Denmark
struck since 1775 by Christian VII,
from whom it receives its name.
Christklndl Dukat. The popular name
for any of the numerous varieties of gold
Ducats bearing the figure of the infant
Christus Gulden. The popidar name for
a gold florin of Utrecht, struck by David
de Bourgogne (1456-1496). It has on the
obverse a figure of the Savior seated on a
throne. See v.d. Chijs (xvii. 7).
Chrysos. A Greek word meaning gold
the Staters were conseciuently known as
Chrysoi Stateroi.
Chu. Also variously written Schu and
Tchu. A Chinese weight, eciuivalent to
aliout a drachm, and occasionally found
stamped on some of the earlier coins. The
name may be derived from Tsu, the most
southerly State of C'hina in the last centuries
before the Christian era.
The Chu and its multiples became the
standard coins of the Chinese Empire during
many of the later dynasties. See Wu
Ch'uan. A Chinese word meaning funds
held in I'eserve, also a spring. The word is
also used for money. The word Ch'uan
was eventually supplanted by Ch'ien
(q.v.). The character for Ch'uan is found
on the coins of Wang Mang (A.D. 7-14).
We find the following combinations:
Ch'uan Fa=coinage, Ch'uan Pi=metal
money, Ch'uan Pu, or Pu Ch'uan=currency.
Ch'uan. The Chinese word for a string
of Cash. ThLs word has somewhat taken
tlie place of Kuan, or Kwan. Another
word is Tiao.
Chuc. Annamese money of account.
See Quan.
Chuckram. Sec C'hakram.
Chugul. A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor
of Hindustan, valued at 27 Rupees.
iS'ee Sihan.sah.
Chulon Civil War Tokens
Chulon, or Chaubinbank. The iiauiu
jifiveii to t-ertiiin silver iiijiots sliaped something
like a mower's whetstone, hetweeii
four and five inches lonp;. These pieces
are characterized by rows of ]irotidieranccs
OH one of the surfaces, and are used
in Aruiam and the Lao States. See Sehroeder
(p. (i:J7).
Chun. See Choa.
Chun Dam. The half of the Dam in the
ciiri'ciieN- of Nepal. Srr Suka.
Chung Pao. Tlie Chinese name for
heavy coin, and it is thus written, instead
of T'onw Pao, on many of tlie larjjer of the
old type Cash.
Chun Pei, meaning '
' arrow money, '
' was
a variety of coin struck in Korea in the
ninth year of King Sei-cho, i.e., A.D. ]464.
One piece of Ciiun Pei was fixed by law to
be worth tliree pieces of the pajier money,
and the coins were used as arrows in times
of emergency. <S'f e Arrow Head Money.
Church Tokens. A series of brass or
copper counters issued by churches in Saxony
and otiiei- ])ai-ts of (lermany in tlie
seventeenth centur>'. They were comnionl.
v known as Kirclu'n])fennige, and were
sold to the worshippers, who deposited
them in the offertory, etc. See, also, Communion
Cianfrone, or Chianflune. A name given
to a variet.v of the silver Scu(h) issued b.v
Charles V, and also during the siege of
Na])les in Ifj'JS. This coin is mentioned in
a monetarv edict of October 8, If):}:}.
Under Philip III of Naples ( ISOS-lG'il),
the same name was ajiplied to the silver
half Ducato, which had a value of five ('arliiu,
and which was later known as Pataca
Cianog, Cianoige, or Cionog. Macbain,
Eli/iiioliiijirdl Diclioiniri/ of the (iaclif
l,(in(/H(u/r. 1S96. defines this as a small
coin. Conf. Welsh, Cciniog, a Peipiy. In
Cork, fralwa.v, Donegal, etc., it is used to
designate a iialf Farthing.
Cicada Money. The luime given to a
variet\' of (^hinese metallic currency on account
of its resemblance to the harvest fly.
Kamsden, who describes them in detail
(pp. 33-34), (|uotes a Chinese manual
where they are mentioned as money to be
fastened to wearing apparel.
Cinco. A name given to the French
l)iece of five Francs in the Dominican Republic.
Cincuentin. Sec Cin(|uaritina.
Cingus. Another name for the QuiniMinx
Cinquantina, also called Cincuentin.
The largest of all the Spanish silver coins
of a value of fiffv Keales. It was issued
by Philip III, Ph'ilip IV, and Charles IT.
Some of the varieties struck at Segovia
have a view of the aqueduct of that town.
Cinquina. A silver coin struck under
Ferdinantl 1 of Aragon, as King of Naples
and Sicily (14oS-1494). Its value appears
to have been originally five Grani but the
later issues being of copper were only
e(iual to two and a half Grani. .S'ee Ducato.
Ill the ]\Ialtese series this coin appears
at the beginning of the .seventeenth century
in copjier and was struck as late as
the reign of Emanuel de Kolian (1775-
Cinquinho. A small silver coin of Portugal,
first issued under IManuel (1495-
1521), with a value of five Keis. It was
continued under the reign of John III
(1521-1557) and then aboli.slied.
Cionog. See Cianog.
Cisele. An expression used bj' French
numismatists to indicate that a coin or
medal has been re-engraved or tooled to
bring out certain jiortions in relief.
Cistophorus. A silver coin j)rincipally
niiiilcil ill the Kingdom of Pergaiiios during
the second and first centuries B.C. and
which was valued at three Komau Denarii.
It receives its name from the representation
on the obverse of the cista, or m.ystic
chest of Bacchus, from which sei'pents are
The place of mintage of the Cistophori
is often indicated by the first letters of
Hie name of the city, the types of which
appear as subordinate symbols in the field
of the coin.
Citharephori. At first a jiopular term
which later liccame an official name for
Hie silver Ilemidrachms of the Lyeian
League which bore the reverse t.vpe of a
lyre (KtOapa, hence KtOapY^^opci).
Civil War Tokens. See Copperheads. Clean Dollars. A term used to designate
the uiK-lioi)]ied ('hiuese Dollars; they
usually command a premium of one per
cent or more over the chopped varieties.
Sec Chalmers (p. 378).
dementi. A general term for the
Grossi issued by Pope Clement VII (1523-
1534) ; a practise instituted by Julius II
with the Giulio. An earlier silver coin,
the Grosso Clemcntino, or Clemeutino, was
struck by Pope Clement V (1304-1314).
Clemmergulden. A name giv^in to the
gold florin of Gueldres and J\diers struck
by Charles of Egmoud (1492-1538). It
has a figure of St. John the Baptist, and
the inscription : karol . d-v-x . gelr . rvL '.
Cliche. A term used in French numismatic
works • to indicate an electrotj'pe
copy of an original coin or medal, and
usually the sides are given separately to
show the obverse and reverse. The etymology
is probably from the old Fi-ench
cliquer, to fix.
Clinckaert, or Klinkhaert. A gold coin
of Flanders and tlie Low Coiuitries, issued
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
It resemliles the Anglo-Gallic Chaise (q.v.)
and tlie name is probably derived from
"Kliuken, " i.e., to ring.
There are divisions of one half and one
Clipped. A name given to such coins
as have tlieir edges trimmed. This practice
was pursued by dishonest persons for
the sake of retaining some of the metal.
The abuse is referred to by W. Wood, in
his Siirvri) of Trade, 1719 (346).
John Foxe, in his Acf.<< and Monuments
of the Church, 1596 (311), has: "About
which time also . . . lewes for monie clipping
were put to execution."
Clou. Zay (p. 361) states that this name
was given to the cut segment representing
one eighth of the Mexican Dollar, when
used in Cochin China, prior to 1879, in
which year the regular French coins were
Clover Cent. The popular name for a
variety of the 1793 cent of tlie United
States, which has under the bust of Liberty
a sprig of leaves resembling those of "a
cliiver phint.
Cnapcock, (jr Knapkoeken. The name
given to tlie half gold florin struck at
Nimegue, Groningen, etc., at the beginning
of the sixteenth century. The obverse
bears a figure of St. Stephen or St. Martin.
The German eipiivalent is Knackkuehen,
and all of these terms mean a brittle cake
or as we would call it, a cracker. The
nickname was bestowed on the coin from
the reverse design which resembled a cake
in common use.
Coal Money. The name given to cii'-
cujar pieces of jet or carved coal, which
appear to be waste in Roman times from the
lathes of turners, after working ott' rings,
etc. They are found at Kimmeridge in
Dorsetshire, England, but it is questionable
whether they were ever used as money.
See Spink (xiii. 154), and Ruding (i. 4).
Coban. Sec Koban.
Cob Money. A term applied to the
early Mexican and South American money,
both in gold and silver, from the method
of striking the coins with a hammer. They
are known in Mexico by the name of
Mdquina de papalotc y cruz, i.e., windmill
and cross money, the cross being of
an unusual form, and not unlike the fan
of a windmill. In the Numisniatic Manual
of Eckfeldt and Dubois, we are informed
that: "these were of the lawful standards,
or nearly so, but scarcely deserved the
name of coin, lieing rather lumps of bullion
flattened and impressed by a hammer;
the edge presenting every variety of form
except that of a circle, and affording ample
scope for the practice of clipping. Notwithstanding,
they are generally found,
even to this day, within a few grains of
lawful weight. Some are dated as late as
1770. They are distinguished by a large
cross, of which the four arms are e((ual
in length, and loaded at the ends; the
date generally omits the thousandth place,
so that 736 is to be read 1736. The letters
PLvsvLTRA are crowded in, without attention
to order."
Cob Money. A name given in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in
Ireland, and subsequently in some British
colonies and possessions to the Spanish
Dollar or "Piece of Eight."
Pettv, in his Political Anatomy of Ireland,
"l672 (350), refers to "Spanish
pieces of eight, called cobs in Ireland,"
and Dinely in his Journal of a Tour in
Ireland, 1681, in the Transactions of the
Cochrane Placks Comet Cent
Kilkenny Archaeological Society (ii. II
55), says, "The most usual money . . .
is Spaiiisli Coyne kiiowuc here by the mune
of a cob, an half eob, and a quarter cob."
Tiie word means something rounded, or
formiiifz: a I'oundisli lump.
Cochrane Placks. In the reifrn of Edward
III of Scotland permission was given
to Cochrane, Earl of Mar, to coin base
money, which were called "Cochrane
placks," and this was a chief charge
against him, and for which he was hanged
over Lauder Bridge in 1482. The Placks
were called in by proclamation after his
This coinage was probably the billon
placks and black half pennies (afterwards
reduced to farthings). They are said to
have been made of copper, and the placks
to have been current for three pennies.
Cobiische Mark. See Mark.
Coin. Usually a piece of metal which
bears an imjjression conferring upon it a
legal character by public or private agreement.
Coined mone.v probably originated in
Lydia in the eighth century before the
Christian era. Herodotus states that the
Lydians were the first people to strike
coins of gold and silver ; this probably refers
to the reform of the coinage by C'roesiis
B.C. 561-546. Prior to that period
elcctrum was probably used altogether.
The use of the word in English literature
can be traced to the fourteenth century,
and Chaucer in the Clerk's Tale
(I. 1112) writes, "though the eoyn be
fair at eye."
Collot. A nickname given to a counterstamped
sou of Guadeloupe. In October,
1766, Louis XV signed an edict ordering
the minting of copper pieces of the value
of one sou for the use of the American
Colonies. These pieces were struck in
1767, and jirobably did not reach Guadeloupe
until the following year, but they
were not put in circulation.
In 170:? George Henri Victor Collot
was the governor of the island and on
October 2 he issued an order for the release
of these pieces, the latter to be counterstamped
R.F. before being put in circidation.
These coins brought into the treasury
an amount of 50,000 livres, and relieved
the searcity of tile Sou .Mari|ucs and
the small silver. They were popularly
known as Collots, after the Governor.
Collybos. A small bronze coin. A name
given at Athens to the Lejiton (r/.c).
Ilesychius also mentions the Dicoll.vbos
and the TricnilylHis.
Colombiano. A variety of tiic Peso issued
at Santa Pe de Bogota i'l-nni 18:}4 to
about 1850. Its value was eight Reales.
Srr Fonrobert, (8077, 8078, 80!)()).
Colombina. A base silvei- coin of Reggio,
issued by Hercules II (15M4-1559). It
has on the reverse a tigure of Saint Daria,
the mart.vr.
Colon. The unit of the gold standai'd
of Costa Rica, named after Columbus, and
divided into one hundred Cciitimos. The
Colon was not coined, but nudtiplies of
two, five, ten, and twentv Colones have been
struck since 1899.
Colonato. A name given to a variety
of the Spanish Peso which exhibits two
crowned jiillars rising from the sea. These
are the so-called Pillars of Hercides, assumed
by the ancients to be the limits of
habitation. The Emperor Charles V
(Charles I of Spain) added the motto Plus
Ultra on these coins to indicate that his
dominion was be.vond the territory recognized
by the ancients.
Colts. (IIwXo'..) The popular name
among the ancients for the silver coins of
Corinth which bear the figure of the
winged horse Pegasus on the reverse. See
Pollux (ix. 76).
Columbia Farthing. The name given
to a copper token with the figure of a
h(>ad and the word rorjiMBiA. Their exact
origin is unknown but they were probably
manufactured in England at the beginning
of the nineteenth centiirv and intend(>
d for exjiort.
Columbian Half Dollar. The name
given to a silver coin of the United States
struck in 1892 and 1893 to conniieinorate
the four hundi-cdtli anniversary of the diseoverv
of America.
A corresponding <pmrter Dollai- is jiopnlarl.
v known as the Isabella Quarter
Comet Cent. The popidar name for
one of the varieties of the United States
cents of 1807, which has behind the head of Liberty a peculiar die-break i-esembling
a comet in appearance.
Comet Dollar. See Kometenthaler.
Commassee. See Kommassi.
Commissarie. See Prestation Money.
Communion Tokens. A series of tokens
said to liave originated in Switzei-land,
where it is claimed John Calvin introduced
them about the year 1561 to exercise control
over sucli as presented themselves for
Communion services. They were known
as Abendmahl Pfennige.
The Liturgy drawn up for the Church
of Scotland, circa 1635, has the followingrubric
prefixed to the Order for the administration
of the Holy Communion: "So
many as intend to be partakers of the
Holy Communion shall receive these tokens
from the minister the night before."
Spalding, Bannantyne Chtb Publications
(i. 77), states that they were used
at the Glasgow Assembly of 1638, to wit
"Within tlie said Church, tlie Assembly
thereafter sitts down ; the church door was
straitly guarded by the toun, none had
entrance but he who had ane token of lead,
declaring he was ane covenanter."
The first church or sacramental token
employed in America of which we have
any authentic account, was used in the
Welsh Run Cluirch in Pennsylvania, which
was founded in 1741, and the token is
dated 1748. This cluirch was generally
known as the Lower West Conecheaguc
Church, and the token bears the two letters
For Canada over two hundred varieties
of the communion tokens are known, and
a list of tliem luts been compiled by R. W.
McLacldan of Montreal.
Communis. Sec Centenionalis and Pollis.
Compagnon. A name given to a variety
of the Gros Blanc issued bv Jolui II
of France (1350-1364). ,Sfee "Hoffmann
(XX. 41, 42).
Conant. A nickname given to tlie silver
Peso of the Philippine Islands introduced
in 1903 on the recommendation of Charles
A. Conant.
Concave Coins. A name given to such
pieces as pri'sciit the appearance f)f a sluiliow
bowl, tiue to a convex die having been-
used for the obverse, and a concave one
for the reverse.
These nummi scyphati, as they were
called, made their appearance as early as
the second century B.C. among the Germanic
tribes inhabiting what is now Bavaria
and Bohemia. Later, this type of coin
was extensively employed by the Byzantine
Emperors of the eleventh and twelfth
Conceigao, or Conception. A gold coin
of Portugal of the value of 4800 Reis issued
by John IV in 1648 in lionor of the
Madoinia de Conception, tlie protectress
of the King. It has on the obverse a cross
and a scriptural inscription on the reverse.
Conder Tokens. See Tokens.
Condor. A gold coin of Chile and of
Ecuador which receives its name from the
figure of the condor on tlie obverse. lu
Ecuador its value is ten Sucrcs and in
Cliile twenty Pesos.
Condor Doblado. A gold coin of the
value of twenty Pesos struck at Santa Fe
de Bogota for the Confcderacion Grauadina.
See Fonrobert (8160).
Confederate Half Dollar. The popular
name for a silver coin of the size of the
regular issues of the United States Half
Dollars, but which was struck by the Confederate
States of America in the New
Orleans Mint in 1861.
It is claimed that but four originals are
in existence.
Confederatio. The name given to a
copper coin issued in 1785 with tliis inscription.
It is muled with a number of
other dies. For details, see Crosby.
Confession Thaler. See Beichtthaler.
Connecticut Cents. The name given to
a State coinage struck in copper from 1785
to 1788 inclusive. For varieties, etc., see
Consecration Coins. A name given to
siicli Roman coins as were struck to comnu^
morate the apotheosis of a ruler,—
ceremon.y which celebrated his passage to
tlie Divinities, and which was ordered
either by the Senate or the successors of
the deceased individual.
Constantinati. Byzantine Sf)lidi, struck
by various cm])crors of the name of Constantine,
were known by this term.
52 ]
Constantin d'Or Copoludi
Constantin d'Or, or Konstantin d'Or.
Tllf liaiiir jiivcii to tll(' I'istdio (ir doiililc^
Ducat issued liy Ludwij,' Coiistautin voii
Koluui-iMoiitbazDii, Bisliop of Strasburg
Consular Coins. Roman coins struck
under tlie •jovernnieut of tlio ("onsuls from
circa B.C. Ho5-27. Tiiey are also known
as Family Coins.
Continental Currency. The name given
to the paper nione^' issued by the Congress
of the United Colonies in Nortli America.
They wei'c first made May 10, 1775, and
eontirnied in use nntil prohibited by the
Constitution of the United States as that
instriniient was finallv ratified and ado])ted
in l7Si).
The Colonies from 1775 to 1779 issued
large numbers of bills of various denominations
from one sixth of a Dollar to eighty
Dollars; twentj- different values with
eleven distinct dates.
Continental Dollar. See Fugio Cent.
Conto. A copper denomination of Brazil,
introduced by C-almon Dupin, the
Minister of Finance, in 1828 and 1829.
These coins were put out at a fictitious
value to defi-ay the cost of a war with
Buenos Aires, and were witiidi'awn in
1S:{6. Scf Nobaek (p. 1020).
Contorniates. A name given to certain
Konian tokens or small medallions which
can always be readily distingnislied by a
groove encircling the entire plancliet.
They wei'c first issued about the time of
Constantine the Clreat and were continued
until the close of the fifth century.
Their use has not been definitely determined.
It is supposed that thej' were employed
at the public games in the allotment
of prizes, or that they were used as
coiuiters in games of chance. See Numis-
VKilic Cliroinrlf. 1906 (p. 232).
Contorno. An Italian word signifying
the edge around the rim of a coin. •
Contragardator. From the French conirfi/
iirdi r. to keep, was a former comj)-
trollcr whose duty it was to keep accounts
of the mints. Ending (ii. 252) cites the
use (if the term as early as ll'i54.
Contribution Coins. The name apj^Iied
to any series of coins which were issued
as necessity money to ])ay an indemnity
levied. They were frecpiently struck from
the (irivate silver of the residents and
from metallic ornaments, regalia, chalices,
etc., belonging to the churches. See Obsidional
Convention Money. A form of currency
which was accepted by mutual agreement
at a fixed standai'd within certain
liouudaries. In ancient times uniform
tyjx's are found on the coins of the Achaean
League, originally formed in the
fourth century B.C. by some cities on the
Corinthian (Julf. All these issues have AX
or AXAIQN, the mark of the League, and
over fortj' cities joined it before it was
dissolved. The example was copied by the
Aetolian, Boeotion, Ionian, and other
The Electors of Cologne, Trier, Mainz,
and the Palatinate made an agreement in
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries by
which their gold florins were struck of a
uniform weight and value. Other important
monetary conferences were those of
various cities in the Low (^)untries in the
fifteenth century; the coinage of the Protestant
Rulers during the Thirty Years'
War; the Convention of 1758, legalizing
the Species Thaler; the one of 1865, called
the Latin Union, in which the Franc, Lira
(and later the Drachma and Peseta) were
put on the same basis ; and lastlj' the Scandinavian
Conference of 1872 between
Sweden and Denmark, to which Norway
became a partj' in 1877.
The Tallero di Convenzione, struck for
Venice under Francesco I (1814-1834) and
hiter, had a value of three Lira. The term
Vereins Thaler is frequently found on tlie
coins of Leopold Friedrich of Anhalt-
Dessau (1817-1871), and Alexander Carl
of Anhalt-Bernburg (1834-1863). See
Cooter. See Couter.
Copeck. iS'ee Kopeck.
Copetum, or Coppes. Both of these
words arc used in mcdiu'val ordinances of
Holland and Flanders to designate coins
with a head on the obverse and corresponding
to the Kopfstiick (q.v.).
Copkinus. A mediseval silver coin
which is i-eferred to in the Opstal bomicis
Friscis (cap. 21).
Copoludi, or Coppoluti. A name given
to such of the Piccoli and the Bagattini of tlie Doge Christopher Moro of Venice
(1462-1471), as were of concave shape.
Conf. Papaclopoli, Le Monete di Venezia
(i. 285).
Copper in a pure state has been practically
abandoned for coining purposes, it
having been ascertained that bronze was
more suitable. It is now used only for
coins of minor denominations, but there
was a period when it was made the standard
of value. See Aes.
Copper, i.e., "a copper" (and the plural
coppers), is used colloquially in England
to denote any small copper coin and in the
United States it means a cent. Shakespeare
in Love's Labour's Lost (iv. 3. 386)
says, "our copper buys no better treasure,"
and Steele, in The Spectator (No.
509), states that "the beadle might seize
their copper."
Copperheads. A name commonly applied
to the tokens issued during the Civil
War in the United States (1862-1865).
In the latter part of the year 1862 the
first of these copper tokens were issued
in Cincinnati, Ohio, and other western
cities. Many of them have on the obverse
the Indian head copied from the United
States cent, and this feature probably gave
them their name. Some of the later issues
however, were struck in brass, white-metal
and silver. There are at least five thousand
varieties, and they continued in circulation
until the end of the year 1863, when
their use was jirohiliited.
Copper Noses. A nickname given to
the Englisii silver of the fourth and fifth
coiiuiges of Henry VIII. They were greatly
(Icbased, and having the full face of
the king, they soon began to wear and
show the inferior metal at the end of the
nose, the most prominent ]iart.
Coppes. See Copetnm.
Coppoluti. See Copoludi.
Coquibus. A billon coin struck by Guv
II, of Canibrai (1296-1.306), and
copied by William I of Hainaut (1304-
1337). It has on the obverse the rude
figure of an eagle which was mistaken by
the common people for a cock, and the
nickname was consequently applied to the
coin. See Blaiichet (i. 19. 461).
Coral. Marco Polo in his Travels (ii.
37), states that this material was used for
money in Thibet.
Cordoba. A silver coin of Nicaragua,
introduced in 1912 and of the size and
value of the United States Dollar. It is
divided into one hundred Centavos. On
October 31, 1915, the Cordoba was made
the only legal tender of the Republic.
Cornabo. A silver coin of the value of
half a Testone, issued during the fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries in Northern Italy.
It occurs in the coinages of Carmagnola,
]\Iantua, Montanaro, Casale, etc. The distinguishing
feature of almost every variety
of the Cornabo is the figure of Saint Constantius
on horseback.
Cornado. Originally a Spanish silver
coin issued under Alfonso X of Castile
(1252-1284), and struck principally at Toledo.
It bears a crowned bust of the king,
and on the reverse a gateway of three
towers. In the fourteenth century it began
to appear made of billon and of much inferior
workmanship, and it seems to have
been discontinued earlj' in the sixteenth
Comet. A general name for money
coined by the Princes of Orange in whose
armorial bearings a hunter's horn appears.
See Blanchet (i. 353).
Comone. In an ordinance of 1522 relating
to the value of various coins issued
in Pavia, old and new Cornoni of the
mints of Casale, Messerano, and Dezana
are referred to, of a value of nine Soldi.
Comuto. A silver coin of Savoy of the
value of five Grossi, i.ssued by Charles II
(1504-1553). It has on the obverse the
armorial shield with a large helmet, and
on the reverse an equestrian figure of St.
Coroa, or Crown. A gold coin of Portugal
of the value of five thousand Reis.
It was first issued in 1835. There is a
half and fifth.
Coroa de Prata. A silver coin of Portugal
of the t.vpe of the preceding and of
a value of one thousand Reis. It was issued
in 1837 and designed by W. Wyon.
Tliere is a corresponding half.
Corona. A silver coin of Naples, issued
under Robert of Anjou (1309-1343) for
the provinces, and continued by some of
Coronat Counterfeit
liis successors. It appears to have been
the prechM'essor of tlie Coronato (q.v.) and
obtains its name from the large crown on
the obverse.
Tlie word Corona and the plural ("oronae
is used on tlie Austrian silver and
gold issues, esijccially the latter. The
term was introduced about 1892. See
Krone and Korona.
Coronat. Sic Royal Coronat.
Coronation Coins are such as ai'c
struck si)ecially wlien the coronation of a
rider takes place and usually contain
some allusion to the ceremony. They occur
extensively in the German series and ai'e
known as Kronungs Muuzen.
Coronato. A silver coin issued by
Fci'dinand I of Aragon, as King of Naples
and Sicily (1458-1494), and copied by his
successor, Alfonso II. It receives its name
from the inscription : coronatvs qvia
LEGITIME C'ERTAViT, on the obverse, which
surrounds the seated figure of the king,
the latter being crowned by a cardinal,
with a bishop standing on the other side.
On the reverse is a large cross.
The Coronato del Angelo, of the same
ruler, bears a representation of the archangel
Micluiel slaying a dragon.
Coronilla. The word means a small
crown anil the designation was applied in
a general way to the Spanish gold coins
of the value of half an Escudo which Iku'c
a crown on the reverse.
Cosel Gulden, or Kosel Gulden. The
name given to a silver coin of August 11,
King of Poland and Elector of Saxony,
issued in 1706 and 1707. The name is
obtained from the Countess of Cosel, a
mistress of the Elector. These coins differ
oidy from the ordinary types in that on
the reverse, a dot, i)robably a mint mai-k,
is a distinguishing feature between the interlaced
sidelds of Poland and Saxony.
Cosimo. The popular name for the
(iriisso of Cosmus 1, Duke of Florence
(1536-1574). It was valued at 160 Piccoli.
Cotale. A silver coin of Florence issued
under the Republic in the early jKirt of
the sixteenth century, with a value of four
Grossi. It has a figure of St. John the
Bai)tist on one side and a lily on the reverse.
Cotrim. A billon Portuguese coin issued
by Alfonso V (1438-1481). It ha.s the
figure of a coronet between two annelets.
Cotterel. A washer, or broad thin ring
(if metal placed below the head or nut of
a bolt; in .several Englisii dialects it is
the idckname for a coin. In the plural,
written the same, it is used to express
money or coins.
Counter. A token frequently struck in
imitation of a real coin and usually of, copper, or some other inferior metal.
.John Skelton in 'J'lic Interlude of Muij-
)i!jf!jci'iicr, 1526 (1. 1186) has "Nay, offer
hym a counter in stede of a peny, " and
in Deid, The I'athway to Heaven, 1601
(24) occurs this phrase: "A fool believeth
every thing; tiiat copper is gold, and a
counter an angel." The last word is of
course an allusion to the gold coin.
The second meaning of Counter is to
signify a piece of metal used for calculations,
e.g., in games of chance. In this
sense it corres[)onds to the Rechenpfennig
(q.v.), and it is .so u.sed by Tliomas llobbes,
in his Leviathan, 1651 (i. iv. 15), who has
this passage: "Words are wise mens
counters, they do but reckon by them; but
they are the luony of fooles.
Similarly, the clown in Shakespeare's
])lay, The Winter's Tale (iv. 3), attempts
to compute his money, but says, "I cannot
d(i"t without counters."
Finally the word was employed in the
l)lural form for coin and monej' in
general. An example is to be found in
Shakespeare's JkUiis Casar (iv. 3) wliere
Brutus saj's
I <liil K 1
Tn .Vnn fol- ;,'(»I»I In pjl.v Iliy Ipfriiins,
Which yiiu ilcnii'il inr : was that chine Ukc Casslus?
Shcmhl 1 havf aiiswcr'cl Cains Casslns S(>?
When Mart'iis ni'iitiis /rrows so covi'tiins.
'i'ci hick snch rasc-al ccinntfrs fnmi Ills frit'ncjs.
lie ready. k<k1s. with ali ycmr tlinncicrliolts.
Hash liiin to iiicccs
Counterfeit. This term is used in nuiiiismalics
licitii to indicate fi-aiidiilcnt issues
of rai'c coins pre|)ai'ed to deceive collectors,
and to debased cui'i-ent coins struck
to be circulated among the general public.
The limits of the present work prevent
.1 detailed description; the reader should
consult the exhaustive in Lnscliin
von Ebengi-eiUii, Athjetueine Miinzkunde
unil (hldgeschichte (pp. 122-132).
Countermark, also called Coiiuterstamp.
A device or lettering, generally made with
a punch, on the face of a regular issue,
either to give it a new valuation or to
indicate its acceptance as a coin of a different
countr.y or locality from the one
that struck the original piece.
Coupure. This word, meaning a "cutting,"
was originally applied to the
French twenty franc paper notes. It is
now, however, identified with bank notes
of smaller denomination, and beginning in
1914 necessity i)aper money called eoupures
ranging as low as a few centimes,
were issued in many of the French cities.
Courant. This term is generally employetl
to tlistinguish the internal currency
from that used in eonnnerce and abroad,
or from paper money.
The Courant Thaler of Poland was issued
under Stanislaus Augustus in 1794
and 1795. It had a value of six Zloty, and
the reverse reads 14 ^/^^ ex marca pur
Courie. See Cowries.
Couronne d'Or. A French gold coin,
introduced by Louis IX (1226-1270), and
continued almost uninterruptedly to the
end of the reign of Philip VI of Valois
(1328-1350). It receives its name from
the large crown on one side; the reverse
has an ornamental cross with fleurs des
lis in the angles, and the inscription
Couromie du Soleil. A French gold
coin of the sixteenth century. It was of
the same weight and (|nality as the English
fh'own of the Rose issued in the reign
of Henry VIII.
Couronnelle. See Ecu a la Couronne.
Courte Noire. See Korten.
Couter, or Cooter. A slang expression
for a Sovereign. It may be derived fi'om
the Danubian-Gipsy word nita, meaning a
gold coin.
Cow Money. See Kugildi.
Cow Plappert. See Blaffert.
Cowries. A general term for the shells
of tlie Cijprcva Moneta. The word comes
from the Hindustani Kauri. The shells
are alnnulant in the Indian Ocean and are
collected especially in the Maldive and
Laccadive Islands, and have l>een used in
China as a medium of exchange from primitive
times. They have been used in most
parts of Asia and Africa up to very recent
times. In Siam 6400 cowries are equal to
about Is. 6d. English money. The Chinese
name is Pei.
In the Betujul Gazette for 1780, referring
to the introdiu'tion of a copper coinage,
the editor states that "it will be of
the greatest use to the public, and will
totally abolish the trade of cowries, which
for a long time has formed so extensive
a field for deception and fraud."
See Allan, Numismatic Chronicle (Ser.
iv. xii. 313), and Elliot (p. 59).
Bowrey, in his Account of Countries
Round the Bay of Bengal, published by
the Ilakluyt Society in 1905, states (p.
218) that there is a money of account in
the Maldives, based on the Cowries, as
follows :
1 Gunda = 4 Cowries.
.J Guud.TS = 1 liiirrii', or 20 Cowries.
4 liiirries = 1 I'oiie t)r I'oon. or 80 (Viwries.
IG Pone = 1 Cawne, or 1280 Cowri(»s.
21/2 Cawne — 1 Rupee, or 3200 Cowrie.s.
Crabbelaer. See Krabbelaar.
Crazia. See Grazia.
Cremonese. The popular name for the
Grosso issued at Cremona during the Republican
rule, /.('., from the twelfth to the
foiirteenth centuries.
Creutz, or Criutz. A copper coin of
Giistavus II Ad(dphns of Sweden struck
in 1632 has the value as 1 Creutz or Criutz.
It is the size of the ^2 Oi"e piece.
Creutzer. An obsolete spelling of the
Kreuzer (q.v.). Adam Berg, in his New
MUnzhuch, 1597, invariably uses the form
Crimbal. In 1731 and 1732 the French
Government issued silver coins of six and
twelve Sols for the Isles du Vent, or Windward
Islands. An Englishman named
Crimbal introduced them at Barbadoes
and in that island they received the name
of Crimbals. See Wood (p. 2).
Criutz. See Civntz.
Croat. The Si)anish equivalent of the
Gros. The name is iisnally applied to a
series of silver coins issued by the Counts
of Barcelona during the foiirteenth and
fifteenth centuries.
Crocard, iir Crokard. A base coin
wliich circulated extensively in England
[ .'")(;
Croce o Testa Crown of the Rose
toward the close of tho tliirtoouth contnry.
For ii short time tlie.v were iillowed to jiass
at the rate of two for a penny, but were
proliiliited in V.UO. Tliey were decried in
Ireland liy a i)rochniuitiiiii of Edward I,
and an ordinance of this ruler (Act 27,
11500) refers to iininreises monees que sunt
(iljprllc: I'olliirds it crnkdrilz. See Brahant.
Croce o Testa. An Italian term meaning
"cross ()!• head" and correspoudinu- to
the Kiiiilish "Heads or Tails" (q.v.).
Crocherd. Probably an ol)solete si)ellinoof
("rocai'd. »SVr Ilalard.
Crocione. A silver coin of Milan introduced
nniler Joseph II (17Sn-1790). It
is the Italian name for the Austrian Kronenthaler
Cronichte Groschen. »SVf Kronigte.
Croeseids. See Ki'oiseioi.
Crokard. See Croeard.
Cromstaert. See Krorastaart.
Crookie. An obsolete Scotch term for a
six])eiic(', and formerly common to Lanarkshire.
The name is )U'obal)ly due to the
fact that it was easily "crooked" or bent.
Croondaalder. The Diitcli and Flemish
c(|uivaleiit of the Kronenthaler (q.v.).
Crore. A money of account used in
India and equal to one hnmlred Lacs.
Crosatus, or Crozat. Du Cange cites
documents of the fourteenth century indicating
that this name was generally used
to describe a coin with a cross upon it.
Crosazzo. A silver coin of Genoa current
from the beginning to the middle of
the seventeenth century. The obverse
l)ears a crown beneath which is the Castell
di (tenova, and on the reverse is an inscription
surrounding a cross with a star
in each angle.
Cross Dollar. The ])opular name for
the Spanish silver coin of eight Reales
witii the IJurguudian cross on the reverse.
In the LoiHhin (lazette, 16S!) (No. 2444)
mention is made of "about 40 1. in Spanish
Money and Cross Dollars."
Cross-type. .S'ee Monnaies a la Croix.
Crown. An English gold coin first issued
in the reign of Henry VIII pursuant
to a proclanuitiou dated November 5, ir)2(),
and origiiudly called a Crown of the
Double Rose. It was current for five shil-
lings aiul was made of 22 carat gold fine
only, this being the earliest example of
a gold coin of less than standard fineness
in England. This alloy was henceforth
known as Crown gold, and it has been the
stan<lard for all Knglisii gold coins since
In the time of Elizabeth this coin readied
the low value of three shillings and four
jience, and it was entirely discontiiuied in
l(j()l, being suix'rseded in 1()04 by the
Britain Crown and the Thistle Crown
Crown. The English silver coin of this
dciiouiiiiation was first issued in 1551, and
formed a part of the third coinage of
Edward VI. Those struck at Southwark
under the direction of Sir John Yorke have
a letter Y for a mint mark, and those issued
at the Tower under Throgmorton
have a figure of a ton.
The double crown of the value of ten
shillings first appeared in the second coinage
of James I.
Crown. See Coroa, Korona, and Krone.
Crown of the Rose. By a proclanuiwas
oi-dci-ed to be struck. This coin was
an imitation of the French Couroune du
Soleil, and it was made current for four
shillings and sixpence, to which value the
French coin was also raised. As the expoi'tation
of gold to France and Flanders
did not cease, it was thought that this
could be stopped by an increase in the
nominal value of this and other gold coins,
and eonsetpieutly on November 5, 1526, another
j)roclamation was issued, by which
another crown, called the Crown of tiie
Double Rose, was to be made, and which
should be current for five shillings. The
latter coin is the regular issue of the gold
Crown {q.v.).
As the existence of such a coin as the
Crown of the Rose was (juestioned for a
long time a detailed description of this
great rarity follows:
Obv. A shield crowned bearing the arms
of England and France ipiarterly, all within
two inner circles, the innermost one
linear, the outer dotted, both i)ierced above
li.v the ball and cross on top of the crown,
mm. a rose, legend henric" -8 : dei : gra":
REX : agl' :z :Pra'; Rev. A full-blown
single rose of five petals, surrounding it
f(jur fleurs de lis arranged erossways, betion of August 22, 1526, a new English
gold coin, called the Crown of the Rose,
tween these a lion passant gnardant and
the letter H crowned, placed alternately,
all within inner circles as on the obverse,
mm. a rose, legend henric '
: rvtilans :
EOSA : SINE : SPINA, the letters on both sides
in Roman characters, except the letter H,
the numeral Arabic. See American Journal
of Numismatics (xliv, 22).
Crozat. See C'rosatus.
Cruciatus, Crucifer, Cruciger. See
Crulckston Dollars. A name sometimes
given to the Scottish crowns of Mary and
Darnley of the second issue of 1565, because
the yew tree on the reverse is supposed
to represent a noted yew at Crulckston,
Lord Darnley 's residence near Glasgow.
Cruitzer. An obsolete spelling of Ki-euzer
discontinued at the end of the eighteenth
centuiy. See Poy.
Crusade. See Cruzado.
Cruzadinho. A small Portuguese gold
coin issued under John V (1706-1750),
and struck at Lisbon ; it was copied for
the colonial possessions and specimens
occur with the Rio and Minas mint marks.
Its value was the same as the later Cruzado,
i.e., four hundred Reis.
Cruzado, also called Crusado and Crusade,
a gold coin of Portugal, originally
i.s.sued by Alfonso V (1438-1481). It obtains
its name from the cross on the reverse
which was placed there to commemorate
the i^articipation of this King in the
crusade against the Turks.
The value of the Cruzado was originally
390 Reis, and in 1517 it was fixed at four
Tostoes, or four hundred Reis, i.e., the
tenth part of the Moidore. Under Manoel
I (1495-1521) it was called Manoel, out
of compliment to that ruler.
The silver Cruzado appears under the
restoration of the House of Braganza, in
the reign of John IV (1640-1656). Its
value was the same as the gold, but many
siiecimens occur counterstami)ed 500, indiciitiug
that it possessed a higher value on
special occasions. It was extensively struck
at the mints in Lisbon, Porto, and Evora.
Pedro II, in 1688, issued a Cruzado
Nuevo, also called Pinto, of the value of
480 Reis, but his successor, .John V, returned
to the old standard.
Cruzado Calvario. A gold coin of Por-
'I'ual first issued in the reign of John III
(1521-1557). It obtains its name from the
elongated cross on tlie reverse, which resembles
the cross of Calvary, and succeeds
the square type of cross previously emplo.
Cufirenta. The name given to the Cuban
silver coin of forty Centavos introduced
in 1915.
Cuartilla. A Mexican copper coin and
the same as the Cuartino {q.v.). The
designation is used for issues of Alvarado,
Chihuahua, Duraugo, Hermosillo, Guanaxuato,
Sinaloa, etc.
Cuartillo. The same as Cuartino (q.v.).
Cuartino. A silver coin of Guatemala,
Nicaragua, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, the
Argentine Republic, etc., of the value of
one quarter Real. See Quartinho.
Cuarto. See Quarto.
Cufic Coins. See Kufie.
Cunagium. According to Du Cange this
implies Iributum pro impressione typi exsolreitduni.
Riuling (ii. 256) states that
in 1422, Henry Somer, the keeper of the
dies in the Tower of London, was commanded
by writ to deliver eunagia for the
mints in this town. He adds: "This, I
presume, had been paid to the warden of
the mint in the Tower, and was therefore
to be returned by liim to the treasurer of
the mint, to which it properly belonged."
Cuneator. A former officer in the mint
who was responsible for the accuracy of
the dies; he received the old aiul broken
dies as his fee. See Ruding (i. 41).
Cunnetti Type. The name given to a
series of Anglo-Saxon Pennies principally
struck at York under Guthred (circa 877--
894) wliich bear on the reverse the inscription
Cupang. This coin mentioned by Chalmers
in Colonial Currency, 1893 (p. 383)
is the same as the Kepeng (q.v.).
Currency. By this is meant coin or bank
notes, or otlier |)aper mon<'y issued b.y autliority,
and wliich are contLinially passing
as and for coin.
Cut Dollar. The name given to the
Siianish Peso or Colonato when cut into
Cjrpraea Moneta Czvorak
four, eight, or twelve seprments, each of
whicli passed for tlie corrosiioiidiiif; value
of the fractional )>art. See Bit.
Cypraea Moneta. See Cowries.
Cyrillus Thaler. A silver coin of 01-
miitz struck liy Wolfjran<!:, Earl of Sclirattenbat'h
iu 1730. It bears on one side a
seated figiire of St. Cyril the Apostle of
the Slavs.
Cyzicenes (Cireek: Kyl^'.xrjvo!). A name
given by the Greeks to the eleetrum Staters
of Cj'zieus in Mysia.
Czvorak. The luime given to the Polish
silver coin of four Grossi. See Szelong.