World Coins Dictionary of Numismatic Names B.

Bacca di AUemagna. According to Promis
(ii. 66), this term was used in Piedmont
for a coin of two Soldi. In 1548 a
Scudo of Savoy was equal to 221/2 Bacca.
Bacchanalian Coins. A name given to
tlie issues of Jahaiigir, Emperor of Hindustan,
which bear on one side the ruler
seated with a goblet of wine before him.
These pieces appeared in 1612 and later.
Bacquette. Another name for Baquette
Badam, or Padens. The name given to
the almond of Persia which was used as
money in some parts of India and on the
Malabar Coast. Stavorninus, in his Voyages
to the East Indies, 1798 (iii. 8), in
writing of the coinage current at Surat,
says: "In the same way as cowries are
made use of in Bengal, as the lowest medium
of exchange, almonds, which are
called badams, are employed for that purpose
here; the comparative value whereof
is, as may easily be conceived, more liable
to variation than any other respective medium.
J. A. de Mandelslo, who was in Gujarat
about 1638, published an account of his
voyages in 1669, and says of the natives
that '
' they also make use of almonds whereof
thirty-six make a Peyse" (?Paisa).
Bar Pfennige. A nickname given to the
small silver and billon coins of the Swiss
Cantons of Berne and St. Gallen, which
have a figure of a bear. This privilege
was granted them by Frederick III in 1475.
See Blanchet (ii. 263).
Baetzner. A base silver coin of Strasburg
curn'nt in the sixteenth century and
later. It was equivalent to eight Deniers,
or the sixth part of a Dick-Pfennig, and
multiples called Drcibaetzner, or one half
of the Dick-Pfennig were also issued.
In the Luzerne coinage the Baetzner was
equal to four Krcnzer, and silver denominations
of J^olmbaetzner were struck from
about 1750 to 1812.
Bagarone, or Bagzuroto. The popular
name for a variety of the mezzo Bolognino,
issued in Bologna, Ferrara, and Modena,
during the fifteenth century and
later. In 1507 it was current in Parma
at one fourth of the Quattrino.
Bagattino, from hagata, a trifle. A small
copper and billon coin of Venice, which
appeared originall3^ about the reign of the
Doge Francesco Foscari (1423-1457), and
was in use for about two centuries.
It was also extensively employed at
Friuli, Sebenico, Spalato, Zara, Rovigo and
other Venetian colonies. At Verona it appears
with a date as early as 1516.
The Bagattino was the Venetian unit in
copper, and it was usually computed at
one half of the Soldo.
Baggiane, or Bagiane. A coin issued by
the mint of IMirandola early in the seventeenth
century and of the value of four
Soldi. An ordinance of 1693 mentions
Baggiane of Modena.
Bagni ( ?plural of Bagno). There is a
reference in Promis (i. 316) to an order
of the year 1717 which prohibits the circulation
of coins called Bagni in the Duchy
of Savoy.
Bahar. According to Noback (p. 82), a
money of accoinit was formerly used at
Bantam, on the island of Java, which is
based on a decimal system, as follows:
1 Bahar = 10 Utas
= 100 Catties
= 1000 Laxsans
= 10000 Pcccoos
The smallest of these, the Peccoe, was
computed at 30 to the Spanish Dollar,
though the value fluctuated.
Bahloli. See Buhloli.
Bahram, or Behram. A name given to
till' copper five casli piece of Mysore, by
Tipu Sultan, in 1790, after the adoption
of his new sj'stem of reckoning. This system
was begun in 1786, and was based on
the Muludi, i.e., dating from the birth of
the Prophet. The name of the coin is the
Persian designation of the planet Mars.

Baizu-da. A coin of the value of two
Holof^niiii stnii'k in JModcna from 1551 to
1553. It was a variety of tiic Jliirajola
Baiocco, or Bajocco. A coin fornu'rly
in use in tlie Pajnil States. It was originally
struck in base silver and later in
copper, and it obtains its name from its
brown color, the Italian for a hay or brown
tint beinpr bajo. Rut ('inafrli states that
the name is probably derived from Hayeux,
a town of France (old name, Bajocae),
where there was at one time a mint.
The Baiocco was the tenth part of the
Paolo, and the one hundredth part of a
Seudo, and it was subdivided into five
In 1712 Po|)e Clement XI issued a silver
coin of 80 Haiocci, and in 1796 Pius YI
struck a 60 Baiocci i)ieee at Bologna in
copper. Among the obsidional pieces ^Mailliet
cites copper coins of two and one half
atid five Baioeei struck during the French
occupation of Civita-Vecchia. 17!)G-17!)7;
five, two and one lialf, and one half liaiocci
for San-8everino, 1797; and five Haiocci
for Tivoii in 1797. Src Ducato.
The Baiocco is nuMitioned by Andrew
Boorde, in his Introduction to Knowlrd(jc,
1547 (179), who .says, "In I)ras they haue
Kateryns and byokes and denares."'
Baioccone. Tlie name given to a copper
coin of the value of five Baiocci struck
for the Papal States during the pontificate
of Pius IX.
Baiochella. A billon coin issued by Si.\-
tus V I l.').sr)-1590), for Rome, Fano, Montalto,
Ancona, etc., and in use during tlie
early part of the seventeentli century.
The name is a diminutive of Baiocco.
Baiochetto. A small silver coin issued by
the Farnesi Family for Castro, Piacen/.a.
etc., during the sixteenth century. Those
of Pietro Luigi P"'arnese (1545-1547) are
(juitc common and usually bear the figure
of Saint Saviiuis on the reverse.
Baiotta. Promis (ii. 174) states that
pursuant to an order of Feliruary 17, 1717,
a tax was levied in Piedmont consisting
of a Baiotta, i.e., five Soldi. This would
make it a variety of the Dueatone, but no
such coin is known at the present time.
Baisa. In a report of tlie United States
Consulate at Maskat, Onuin, dated Marcli
2:S, 1911, it is stated that the only Oman
coin is the cop])er Baisa or ".Maskat Pice."
"It is used in retail ti'ansactions and can
usmdly be exchanged in small (pumtities at
the rate of twelve Baisas for one Anna of
Iniiian currenc}'."
Bajoire. A name given to coins on
which occur two or more ]irotile portraits,
one suiterimposed and 'more or less obscuring
the one underneath. Notable examples
are the English Crown of William and
Mary; tlie Lafayette Dollar, etc. t>ce Jugate.
Bakiri, or Bakhri. A nanu- given to the
quarter l\u|)ce of ^lysore by Ti|)u Sultan,
in 1786, when he adopted his new system
of reckoning, based on the Muludi, i.e..
dating from the birth of the Prophet. The
coin is so called after Muluuumad Bakir,
the fifth Imam.
Bakia Asarfi. A gold coin of Nejial of
the value of two Mohurs. See Suka.
Balance Half Merk. See Mcrk.
Balastraca. A name given to the Spanish
Peseta stamped with the figui'e 400 in
a I'cctaugle to indicate its altered value into
Heis. Tlu're are cori'esponding halves
and (piarters, stamped respectively liOO and
100. This ])ractice was extensively carried
on by private jiersons in the province of
K'io (Jrande do Sul. Sec Meili (ii. 355).
Balboa. The unit of the gold staiulard
of Panauui, divided into one hundred
Centesimos ami of the same value as the
money of the I'nited States. It is luimed
after the explorer, but uji to the ])resent
lime lias not been str\u-k, the largest coin
1)1' I'iiiiama being the Peso, or half Balboa.
Baldacchino. An Italian word meaning
a canopy, and sometimes used to describe
the Pavilion d'Or (q.r.).
Baliardus. Du Cange cites a manuscrijit
of the thirteenth century of the Diocese
of Bourges which reads, "Ilenricus de
Solia<'o cantor Bitui-icensis ipii dedit decern
libras lialiardorum ad emendos reddiins."
It is probably the same as the
liaviardus (q.v.).
Balssonaya. See Bossoiuiya.
Bamboo Money. An elongated, narrow,
tablet-like sliajjcd money .supposed to have been derived from ancient metal
cheeks said to have been current in the city
of Tsi-an fu, the capital of Shantung-, as
far back as A.D. 1275, bat as time weiit
on, its circulation vpas not limited to this
locality. They are now found in nearly
all parts of China, 'although they appear
to be most popular in the Yang-tse regions.
This subsidiary money was issued by small
banks, exchange houses, contractors of labor,
etc., to serve as a medium of small
exchange according to the values indicated
on them. Besides the value, the names of
the issuers, as well as the address of their
business place, is found on a great many
of them.
Their field of circulation was, as a rule,
purely local, althougli no few extended
over "the limits to whicli tliey were first
intended. Some, on the other hand, served
as checks, to be redeemed for cash on presentation.
Others were intended to be
used as tallies for calculating the amount
f)f a journey, a day's work, or some other
such purpose. The values inscribed on
them are stated, in tlie majority of cases,
in cash, and range from 1 Kwaii (1000-
cash) down to 1 cash denomination. Their
sizes also vary, from six inches down to a
little over one inch. The inscription is
usually in relief, burnt with a stamping
iron, and countermarks are sometimes
added afterwards to prevent fraud. See
Wooden Money.
Banco. The system of banco currency
was instituted in the sixteenth century in
Italy, when tlie banks sought relief from
failure by ajiplication to the government
for authority to reduce tlie weiglit of the
Ducat, Zecehino, etc. The practice of a
goverinnent to profit by the variation of
weight and fineness of metal is of frequent
The Mark Banco was a money of account
iiiti-oduced liy the Bank of Hamburg
wliich insisted on ]iayments by its
depositors of bars of fine silver, but liquidated
its transactions with so-called Banco
Thaler, i.e., with silver coins containing
more or less alloy.
Frederick the Great issued a silver
Banco Tiuder in 176:") ujioii the institution
of the Koyal Bank. At the present day
the terms Banco Thah'r, lianco Daler, etc.,
are usually applied to paper money issued
by a national government.
The Skilling Banco was a copper coin
introduced in Sweden in 1819 for Avesta
and in 1832 for Stockholm. It was last
struck in 1855.
Banderuola. Anotlier name for the Ducatone
struck by Odoardo Farnese (1622-
1646) at Piacenza. It has on one side the
figure of St. Anthony holding a banner.
Bankje. A Dutch term popularly used
for paper money in general.
Beoik Note. A term used to describe a
promissory note issued by a bank, and
made payable in cf)in to tlie bearer on demand.
It is a circulating medium authorized
bj' law.
Formerlj' bank notes, or bank bills, as
they were sometimes called, were made
payable to a particular individual and the
date was limited.
Bank of England Dollar. Hcc Dollar.
Bank of Ireland Dollar. Sec Dollar.
Bankportugaloser. Sec Portugaloser.
Bankschelling, also known as Escalin au
Lion. A silver coin of West Friesland issued
in 1676 and later. It bears the inscription
Banngeld. The popular name for fines
[laid to the local excheciuer or court during
the Middle Ages in manj^ parts of Germany.
Ban Sen. The Japanese for numbered
sen. The pieces have numbers on the back
and arc found in the Eiraku, Genwa and
Kwanei series.
Banu. A copper coin of Roumania
adopted in 1867 when this country based
its monetary system on the Latin Union.
One hundred Bani are equal to one Leu,
and ten Lei are ecpud to one Alexander.
Baptismal Thaler. See Tauf Thaler. .
Baquette. The luime given to a Liard
stfiiik liy Louis XIII for Beam in 1642
and later. It is a small copper coin on
llio obverse side of which the field is divided
into four comjiartments with crowned
Ls and cows in the opposite corners. See
Barbarian Coins. A general designation
for pieces struck from circa B.C. 400
to A.D. 300 in imitation of Greek and Roman types. To this class may he assifjiied
the imitations of Atlieiiiaii eoiiis towards
the eiul of the fifth eeiitury B.C.; tlie imitations
of the coins of Philip 11, of Macedonia,
the Gaidish coinafje, the imitations
of the latter for Britain, and finally imitations
of Roman Imperial issues, tiee Hill
(pp. 9-10).
Barbarin. A .silver coin of the
Alihcy of Saint Martial in Bretagne, issued
at the betrinning of the twelfth century.
It obtains its name from the bearded
face of the saint on the obverse. >SVf Lemocia.
Barbarina. The name given to a silver
coin of Mantua of the value of ten Soldi,
which bears the figure of St. Barbara, the
patron of the city. It was originally
struck by Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga (1550-
1587) and was copied in (Juastalla.
A variety of this coin, but smaller, was
issued at the begijining of the seventeenth
century, and was computed at one Grosso.
It was known as the Barbarina Nuova, or
Barbarina col Girasole, from the sun-flower
in the design.
Barbary Ducat. The popular name for
the Zccchino in some of the West Indian
Islands where it was introduced in the
latter part of the .seventeenth century. See
Chalmers (p. ;{97).
Wavell Smith, the Secretary of the Leeward
Islands, in a pamjihlct entitled Two
Letters to Mr. Wood. 1740, states that
these coins were "dipt of five grains of
their weight" and adds the following note:
"When I fii-st discovered the introduction
of these Barbary ducats in my office
at St. Kitt's, I soon j)ut a stop to their
currency by refusing them in my office;
and afterwards talking with some gentlemen,
they were desirous to give them a
common name. Upon which I reply 'd:
'Christen them as sons after their fathers'
name: so let them be called Toby's and
Jerry's,' for they were introduced by a
rich man at Nevis, Tobias Wall, and Jeremiah
Brown, another very rich man at St.
Barberine. A general name for the
piece of five Soldi struck at Avignon in
ltj."57 by Pope Trban VI 11, whose family
name was Barberini.
Barbonaccio. The name givcii to the
Barl>onc of Lucca after its value had been
reduced from twelve to nine Soldi.
Barbone. A silver coin of the Republic
(if Lucca issued in the second half of tlie
fifteenth century and continued to the
middle of the eighteenth. The name is
derived from the bearded face of Christ
on the obverse, which is usiudly accompanied
by the inscription sanctvs vvltvs.
Its value was twelve Soldi.
Barbuda. A billon coin of Portugal issued
in the reign of Fernando (1307-1:583)
and struck at Lisbon, Porto, .Miranda, and
Tuy. There is a corresponding half. On
both types the ruler is depicted as crowned
with a vizor over his face, and on the reverse
is a cross surcharged with a shield.
The Barbuda had a value of three I)inheiros.
Bar Cent. The name given to a United
States copper trial or experimental piece
supposed to have been struck about 1776,
according to a proposed jilan foi- a decimal
It takes its name from the tliirtecn lateral
bars which cover one entire side of
the coin.
Bareheaded Noble. See Noble.
Bargellino. This word means "pertaining
to a shei'iff, '' and the nairie was bestowed
on a piece of si.\ Denarii issued in
1316 by Lando di Agubbio, the Sheriff
(Bargcllo) of Florence.
Bari-Bri. The unit of weight in the
Soudan, and corresponding to 18 grammes.
It is worth 14 Miscals, and each IMiscal is
divided into 27 Banans, the latter being
a native seed. See Spink (ii. 841).
Barile. A silver coin of Florence sli-uck
early in the si.vteenth lentury and ado|)te(l
by Alessandro Medici (1533-1536), the
first Duke. It has a figure of St. .lohn the
Baptist on one side and a lily on the re-
\erse. The original value was twi'lve Sols
and si.\ Deniers. It was coined in the
Duchy of Urbino.
Tli(> name is said to have been bestowed
on this coin because its value re])resented
the duty or tax on a barrel of wine.
Bar Money. A name generally applied
to bars of metal which are stamped with some value, and were formerly used as
currency. See Bonk, and Tang.
Caesar, De Bello Gallico (v. 12) \ises the
phrase "utuntur aut aere aut taleis ferreis
ad certum pondus examinatis pro nummo,
i.e., "They (the Britons), use either copper
or iron rods (that have been) weighed
by a fixed weight, for coined money."
Barrinha. A gold coin of bar form
struck under Maria II of Portugal for
Mozambique. Its value was two and one
half Maticaes or sixty-six Cruzados. There
was a corresponding half for one and one
quarter Maticaes.
Bartgroschen. See Judenkopfgroschen.
Basel. Ilolinshed, Chronicles, 1577 (ii.
67), states that in "the same yeare [i.e.,
in 1158], also the King altered his coine,
abrogating certeine peeces called basels.
See Kuding (i. 170).
Bassanaya. See Bossonaya.
Bastardo. A tin coin introduced by
Albufiuerciue, Governor General of Malacca
in 1510. See Caixa.
Bastiao. The collo([uial name for a
variety of the silver Xeraphin struck at
Goa in 1659. It received this designation
from the figure of St. Sebastian on the
obverse. Its value was three hundred Reis
or five Tangas.
Bat. The Siamese name for the Tical
Bath Metal. According to Ure, Dictionary
uf Chemistry, this is an alloy consisting
of three or four ounces of zinc to
one pound of copper. It is said to have
been used in the manufacture of the Rosa
Americana coins.
Battezone. A broad silver Grosso of
Florence, i.ssued in 1503-4. It is of the
type of the Carlino {q.v.) and the
of Christ by St. John is represented on
the obverse. The name of the coin is from
the Italian battezznre, to baptize.
Batzen, f)r more properly in the singular,
Batz or Batze, was the name originally
given to a silver coin of the size of
the Groschen, which was introduced in
Berne, early in the sixteenth century, when
the Piappart was abolislied. It was copied
in the otlier Swiss cantons, as well as in
Bavaria, Isny, Strasburg, Nordlingen,
Augsburg, etc. According to the best authorities
the name seems to be derived
from the figure of the bear, the armorial'
device of the canton of Berne. The old
German name for this animal was Betz,
later Batz. The etymology from the Italian
pczza, a piece, is erroneous, as these
coins never originated in Italy, but were
copied in that country'. See Rollbatzen.
The original value of the Batmen was
four Kreuzer, therefore 18 Batzen made
the Thaler of 72 Kreuzer. It appears to
have retained this ratio for a long time,
because in Adam Berg's Miinzhuch, published
in 1597, as low as 17 Batzen are
given as the equivalent of a Thaler.
In the modern Swiss coinage prior to
the introduction of the Latin Union system,
the Batzen was one tenth of the Franc,
and equal to ten Rappen.
Baubee. See Bawbee.
Baudequin. A French word meaning a
tent or canopy, and sometimes applied to
the Pavilion d"Or {q.v.).
Bauerng^oschen, i.e., Peasant's Groschen.
A name given to the silver Groschen
of Goslar on account of their poor execution.
These coins bore the figures of Judas
with a staff and Simon holding a saw, and
they were supposed to bear a resemblance
to two peasants. The Bauerngroschen
were originally struck about the middle of
the fifteenth centurj-, and were of the value
of twelve Pfennig.
Bauem Thaler. The cf)mmoii designation
for a small brass token bearing the
inscription web mich last stehen dem
wiRDS VBEL GEHEN, and ou the reverse,
The object of these pieces was the following
: whenever it was necessary to convoke
an important convention of peasants
living at some distance ajiart, the head of
the community desjiatched a message to
the nearest farmer with this token and a
summons. The latter in his turn was expected
to notify his nearest neighbor, and
each recipient pursued the same course
until all had been informed.
These tokens were common in Westphalia
(luring tlie eighteenth century.
Bauri. Anotlicr name for the Burrie Baviardus, or Bauviardus. A coin of
the tliirtcciitli ci'iitiiry cited Uy Dii C'an<re.
It is a term rolatiiii; to pa\nu'iits probably
inaclo in Herri in TJOM an<l 11227, and may
be the same as tlie Halianhis (q.r.).
Bawbee. A Scoteli l)illon coin first
struck ill the reifrn of .lames V and discontinued
under William III.
The early varieties, issued at the Edinburfrh
or Stirlinjr mints, wei-e of the value
of one and one half pence, but in the
reign of Charles II the value was raised
to sixpence.
The name by some is derived from has
piece or bax billon; others think it takes
its name from Alexander Orrok, Lord of
Sillebawbye, who is said to have been the
first to strike these coins.
Marston in Thr Malcontent, 1C04 (Induction),
s|)eaks of a wager "that was not
worth five bau-bees," and the coin is also
mentioned by Beaumont and Fletclier, in
Wit nt Srvf'ratl Weapons, 1647 (v. 2).
Bay Shillings. Sec Pine Tree Coins.
Bazarucco. A coin struck by the Portuguese
in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, and current in their possessions
at ("haul, Goa, Bassein, Din, and in the
vicinity of Bombay. Specimens occur in
copper, lead, and billon.
Ill the early (Joa coinage of about 1510,
the Bazarucco, also called Leal, was etiual
to two Heis. Later it became the fifteenth
part of a X'intem ; but the value fluctuated.
Multiples exist as high as twenty.
The coin Ijears on one side the armorial
shield of Portugal, which is sometimes
found with tlie letters D and B to the left
and right, to indicate the mints at Diu
and Bassein. The reverse designs vary;
some specimens have a St. Andrew's cross
with a central horizontal bar, others a
sphere, and others again a cross with the
foul' figures of the date in the angles. See
.lacob Canter Visscher, in his Letters
from Malabar, Madras, 1862 (p. 82), describes
a base coin struck at Cochin which
he calls Boeserokken, consisting of an alloy
of lead and tin, with tlie arms of the Dutch
East India Company on one side. Sixty
of them are e(iual to a Cochin Fanam.
The name of this coin is frecpiently corrupted
to Buzerook, and the nickname
Tinney is also given to it, in allusion to
its composition.
Beads used as money. See Borjookes,
and Kharf.
Bean. An English slang term for a
Sovereign or Guinea, and for money when
used in the plural.
William Harrison Ainsworth, in his
novel, h'oohwood, \SM (iii. !)) has the following
passage: "Zoroaster took long odds
that the match was off; oft'ering a bean to
half a quid (in other words, a guinea to
a half guinea), that Sybil would be the
Bean Money. See Cho Gin.
Beard Money. See Borodovaya.
Beato Amedeo, i.e., Blessed Amedeus.
A name given to a silver coin of the value
of nine Fiorini struck at the mints of
Turin and Vercelli in 1616 by Duke
Charles Emanuel I. It bears a bust of the
Duke in armor and a figure of St. Amedeus.
Beato Luigi. A silver coin of Mantua
issued by Viiicenzo II. Gonzaga (1626-
1627) in honor of Luigi Gonzaga. Its
value was half a Scudo.
Beaver Skins. See Hudson Bay Tokens.
Bees. See Bezzo.
Bedidlik. A gold coin of the modern
Egyptian series of the value of one hundred
Piastres. It was introduced A.H.
1255 or A.D. 1839.
Beghina. Dii Cange cites this as being .
a small coin mentioned in the Pacta Tongrensi
of 1403.
Begrabniss Thaler. See Mortuary
Beguinette. A name given to a variety
of the Maille Blanche {q.v.) .struck by
Guillaume de Nancy, a monever of Robert,
Count of Bar, from 1370-1374. See Blanchet
(i. 475).
Behram. See Bahram.
Beichlingscher Thaler. A Thaler of Poland,
issued under August II in 1702. The
obverse bears the cross of the Danebrog
surrounded by four crowned monograms.
Beichtthaler, meaning "Confession Thaler,"
was the name bestowed on a medallie
Thaler issued by Johann Georg II of Saxony in 1663. The obverse represents the
fefector standing at a table, and the coin
received its name from the fact that he is
supposed to have handed one of these pieces
to the church every time that he went to
Bekah. An early Jewish weight standard
; it was equal to one half of the Shekel.
»SVr Exodus (xxxviii. 26).
Bell Dollar. Hee Glockenthaler.
Bell Money. The name given to a variety
of early Chinese metallic currency on
account of "its resemblance to a bell. These
coins average from 50 to 100 millimetres
in height. They are described in detail
by Ramsden (pp. 13-15).
Bender. A slang name for the English
sixpence ; it probably owes its origin to the
fact that it is easily bent. Dickens in
Sketches by Boz says "Niver mind the loss
of two bob and a bender;" and Thackeray
in The Newcomes (si) has "By cock and
pye it is not worth a bender."
Benduqi. A gold coin of Morocco which
appears to have been originally issued in
the reign of Muley Soleiman (A.H. 1207-
Benediktspfennige, or Benediktuspfennige.
A sci-ics of religious medalets the
origin of which can probably be traced to
masses said in cloisters. See Kohler, Miimbelustigungen
(vi. 105).
Bener Dener. This term occurs in the
laws of William I as given by Ingulphus,
and according to Turner, Uhtory of the
Anglo Saxons (ii. 135), it signifies "better
pennies." Ruding (i. 110) observes that
the word bener is omitted in all the later
editions of these laws, and adds that "possibly
the word may be nothing more than
the following one, dener, mis-spelled."
Benggolo. A leaden .coin of Celebes,
supposed to have been issued by the ruler
Ainloidlah de Tallt>. See Millies (p. 178),
Ponrobert (No. 904).
Ber. The Amharic word for the Abyssinian
Talari (q.v.), of Menelik. The word
primarily means silver, and thence silver
money. The value expressed on the Talari
is Amd Ber, i.e., one Ber. The half has
Bertha Thaler
Yaber Agod, i.e., half Ber; the quarter
Yaber Roob or Rub, i.e., quarter Ber; and
the eighth Yaber Tenan, Temun, or Touluon.
Berenicii. See Ptolomaici.
Bergsegensthaler. See Ausbeutemlinzen.
Berling. A small base silver coin of
Goslar of the value of one quarter Pfennig
or one half Arenkopf (q.v.).
Berlinga. A silver coin of Filippo Maria
Viseonti, Duke of Milan (1412-1447). The
obverse bears an equestrian figure of the
Duke and the reverse has St. Ambrosius
on a throne. It is a variety of the Grosso.
Bernardin. A name given to the Denier
issued at the mint of Anduse during the
thirteenth centurj-. These coins are characterized
by a large letter B on the obverse
which is supposed to stand for Bernard,
a local ruler, although this name was
borne by the Seigneurs of Anduse from
1024 until 1243. See Blanchet (i. 19).
Bemer or Perner, were diminutive base
silver coins current iji Tyrol from the
thirteenth to the sixteenth century. They
were copied from the Deniers of Verona,
called in German, Bern, which must not
be confused with the Swiss town Berne
or Bern. Four Berner were equal to
one Vierer, and twenty Berner were equal
to one Kreuzer, or Zwainziger. See Prey
(No. 72).
Bemhardsgroschen. A silver coin of
Ilildesheim which appeared in 1490 and
which has on the reverse a half length
figure of St. Bernard with a cross and
mitre and the inscription sac berwakov p.
See Prey (No. 345).
The concluding letter of the inscription
is taken to be the abbreviation of Patronus.
Gappe, in his introduction shows that the
choice of this saint was an error, and that
the blunder occurred in the year 1298,
when a new seal was ordered for the city.
The patron saint of the city is Godehard,
aiul he appears with his bishop's title S'.
(iO(J : Episc. in the earliest seal and archives,
lie further states that the last appearance
of St. Bernard on the Ilildesheim
coins occurs in the year 1552.
Bertha Thaler. A broad medallic Thaler
(if the Canton of Solothurn which shows OH the obverse St. Ursus, the martyr, receiviiif;
a model of the cathedral from the
kiiecliiip: (HU'cii Bertha of Hiir^Miiidy. The
date, A.l). d'.i'I, wlieii this is supposed to
have hai)])eiied, is addod.
Bes, or Bessis. Tlic two-thirds of the
As of a weight of eigiit ouuees. tice Acs
Besa. A copper coin issued for Italian
Soiiialilaiid : it represents the value of tlie
one huridi'edth i)art of a silver Rupee, and
there are niulti|)les of two Bese and four
These i)ieces were first struck at Rome,
from Ciior<ji's models, and they were authorized
h\- a roval decree of January 28,
In the Ahyssiiiian coinafre the one fifth
of the (icrsh, or one hundi'cdth part of
tile Talari, is a copjier coin called Besa.
Besante. A \'enelian eojiper coin struck
by the Doge.s Girolamo Priuli (1559-1567)
and Pietro Loredano (1567-1570), for Nicosia,
in Cyprus. See Solidus.
Besh. A copper coin of modern Turkey
of the value of eig:ht Paras or one fifth of
the Piastre.
Beshlik. Originally this was a silver
coin of the Ottcmian Empire of the value
of five Paras, and weighing fi'om 20 to 40
In the modern silver currency of Turkey
the lieshlik reiu'csents four and three (juarter
Piastres, and in the series of Metalliks,
two and one half Piastres.
The Beshlik of Egypt was originally a
cojiper coin of the value of five Aspers or
Aledins; under JIahmud II (A.II. 122:!-
1255) it was made of liillon. The issues
for Tunis and Trijioli are billon and woi'th
five Paras.
Besorg. Mandelslo in his Voyage and
Tnirds to the East Indies, 1669 (p. 8),
under date of 16.'?8 states that at Gombroon
the native currency is a copper coin called
the Besorg, "whereof six make a Peys, and
ten Peys make a Shiihi, which is worth
about fivepence English." This is ])rol)-
ably the same as the Bazarucco iq.i'.).
Betpfennige. Sec Weihemiinzen.
Bettlerthaler, or Martinsthaler. A general
name used to describe such coins as
bear a figure of St. Martin and the beggar.
Tiiey occur in the series of Mainz, Erfurt,
IMagdeburg, Schwarzburg, etc., and in the
coinage of Lucca where they receive the
name of San Martino {q.v.).
Beutel, meaning a purse, was a former
Tuikisii money of account. The Keser, or
Beutel of silver, was computed at 500
Ghru-sh or Piastres. Tiie Kitze or Chise,
i.e., the Beutel of gold, was valued at 30,000
The corresponding French etpiivaleufs
are d 'argent and Bourse d'or.
In Egypt the Beutel was equal to 25,000
Medini, or 75,000 Aspers.
Beutgroschen, meaning Grosehen made
of booty, was a name given to certain varieties
of silver coins struck in 1542 by the
Elector Johann Frederick of Sachsen and
the Landgi-ave Philip of Ilessen. They
were minted from captured silverware and
bore the j)ortraits of the two rulers with
the insci-ij)tion bkvt. g. v. wolpbvt.
Bezant. See Solidus.
Bezemstuiver. The name given to a
small silver coin issued in Friesland, Overy.
sel, Utrecht, etc., from about 1620 to
1770. It had on the obverse a figure resembling
the fasces, to indicate the union
of the Provinces, and hence tiie French
e(iuivalcnt, Sou an Faisceau.
Bezzo. A small Venetian silver coin introduced
about the period of the Doge
Andrea Gritti (1523-1538), and continued
until the beginning of the seventeentii century.
The type usually represents a fioriated
cross on one side and the lion of St.
I\Iark on the other.
The name is suppo.sed to be derived from
the Illyrian word hees, meaning a small
piece of money.
Bezzone. A copper coin of the value
of six Bagattini struck in Venice bj* the
Doge Marino Grimani in 1604.
Bia. A former money of account in
Siam, based on the cowrie shells of which
it was e(iual to 200. Tiie cojipcr Pai {q.v.}
was com])uted at 200 Bia.
Bianchetto. A billon coin of Casale in
the iManpiisate of Monteferrato, of the
value of one twelfth of a (irosso. It was
introduced by Teodoro II, Palaeologo
(1381-1418), and continued in use for about a century. See Maglia. The type
was imitated at many mints in Savoy and
Bianco. An Italian coin of base silver
corresponding to the German Albus and
the French Blanc. It appeared ]irobal)ly
before the fifteenth century and was issued
at Bologna, Venice, the Duchy of Mantua,
etc. For an extended account see Papodoi)
oli, f)tl Pireolo e <hl H'uineo, 1887.
Biancone. A base silver coin originally
issued at Monteferrato in 1528 of the value
of ten Soldi. It was copied in Modeiui,
Bologna, and Reggio, ancl in 1558 it was
computed at 131/2 Baiocchi in Perugia.
Biche. A copper coin struck by the
French at Pondichery for Mahe on the
Malabar Coast. It corresponds to the Pice
and is the fifteenth part of a Fanam (q.v.).
There are divisions of halves and (juarters.
See Zay (p. 289).
Bigati. A name given to certain issues
of the Roman Denarius on account of the
figures of Diana, Victory, etc., in a biga
{i.e., a two-horse chariot) which appear
on the reverse. They are referred to by
Pliny, Tlistoria Nai. (Ixxxiii. c. 12). See
Biglione. The Italian name for Billon
Bilibres Formae were extraordinarily
large gold medallions of two pouiuls
weight, said by Lampridius (Sev. Alex.,
39) to have been struck by Elagabalus.
Another name for these medallions is F{n'-
mae Centenariae, as two pounds exactly
equal one hundred Aurei. No specimens
have survived.
Bi-lingual Coins are common to all peviods.
When Kome controlled portions of
Asia Minor the pro-consuls issued coins
with both Latin and Greek inscriptions.
In the Bactrian and Indo-Scythian series
occur (ireek and luitive Indian characters;
on the Sicilian coins of the Middle Ages
are Latin and Arabic legends, etc.
In a number of modern coinages it is
now common to find inscriptions in more
than one language ; these are coins for
over-sea Colonial possessions, e.g., China,
India, elc. The coinage of the Manchu
dyTiasty of Cliiiia is lii-lingual.
Bille. A slang French term for copper
coins in general ; it is probably from Billon
Billon. A base metal usuallj' obtained
by mixing silver and copper.
The designation is now generally applied
to any coin ostensibly called silver, but
containing in reality more than fifty per
cent of co])per. If the proportion of copper
is more than seventy-five per cent, the
composition is called black billon, argenfiiiii
nigrum, or moneta argentosa. Lastlj',
if the coin is of copper, and is only thinly
washed with silver, as in the case of some
of the Scheidemiinzen (q.v.) it is called
Weisskupfer, i.e., white copper. See Potin.
The Encgclopaedia Britanniea in an early
edition of 1797 states that gold under
twelve carats fine is called billon of gold.
Ruding (i. 210) mentions the Turonenses
nigri, that is, the black money of Tours,
which was brought to England in the fourteenth
century and prohibited.
Billon Groat. See Blanc.
Binauriae Formae were gold medallions,
etpual in weight to two Aurei, said by Lampridius
(Sev. Alex., 39) to have been issued
by Elagabalus. None have come
down to us.
Biniones, or medallions of the weight of
two Aurei, struck by Gallienus.
Binsat. A gold coin of Akbar, Emperor
of Hindustan, equal to one fifth of the
Siluuisah {q.v.).
Bir-ghrush. See Piastre.
Birthday Thaler. See Geburtstagsthaler.
Bishop's Money. See Salding.
Bissolo. A base silver coin of the Duchy
of Milan issued by Giovanni Maria Visconti
(1402-1-112), and retained in the
coinage of Estore and Giancarlo Visconti.
It had a value of one eighteenth of the
The obverse of this piece usually bears
a floriated cross or a bust of St. Ambrosius
the has a crowned serpent or viper
(hixcia), the arms of the Visconti family,
from which design the coin obtains its
[•J4] Bissona. A silver coin struek by Louis
XII of Franec fur Milan (1300-1512), with
a valiu' of tliree Soldi. It has on the obverse
the arms of France betwei n two
crowned vipers or serpents. iSVc liissolo.
Bisti. A Persian eopiier coin of the Sufi
or Safi Dvnastv wiiich ap])eare(l ahont tlie
reifin of Shah "Ahbas I (A.ll. i)!Ki-l():(S=
1587-1629). It bore a proportion of two
and one-half to the Shilhi, or five Bisti
ecpial to two Shahi, and was also ecpial
to fonr Kashbegis.
In the Geor-iian series this coin can be
traced to the reign of Queen Knsndaii
(A.D. 1227-1247), and there is a correspondiiifj:
half, called Nim-Bisti. See Lansihtis
and Fonrobert (424!) rt acq.).
Bit. The central portion of the Spanish
Peso or (-olonato, wliich was cut out and
countcrstaniped for use in British (Uiiana
and a ininibcr of the West Indian islands.
The word is also sometimes written
Uitt, and is generally used as an eciuivalent
for the Spanish silver Ileal. The
vahie of the Bit it.self was generally unaltered,
but their number as an equivalent
for the Dollar was increased or
lowered. For details as to these fluctuations,
sec C'aldecott in British Niimisnuttir
,/uurnal (i. 294), and Wood in Aineriain
' Journal of Ninnismaiics (.\lviii. S9).
The name was used in an abbreviated
form on a token issued by Herman
(iossling in 1771, for the island of St.
Eustatius. There are two varieties, marked
1 Bt. and 1/2 Rt-
The Bit, when used in computation in
the Danish West Indies, is reckoned at the
one-fifth of the copper cent of that country.
The last coinage of the islands before
their purchase by the United States had
their values expressed thus: 50 bit - 10
cKNTS on the dime-size silver, 25 kit on
the nickel, and 10, 5, and 2'/) hit on the
bronze. See Daler.
Bit. A popular name in many of the
western parts of the United States to indicate
the value of twelve and one-half
cents. As, however, no coin of this denomiiuition
was ever struck, the expression
"two bits," i.e., the ((uarter dollar, was
much more common.
Tn Crrssij (Chap. 1) one of Bret Harte's
Californian tales, a boy is i)aid "two bits"
for giving some lessons.
In some i)arts of California the Dime or
tcn-c<'nt piece is called a "short bit."
Bit and Bung are slang terms used by
tlii('\('s ill icfnririg res|)ectively to money
and a purse. The old Fnglisii dramatists,
Thomas Dckker and Kobcrt Cii'eeiie, refer
to these terms. Dekker in his Jests to
iiKike Mcrie, 1607 (repr. Grosart, ii. 328),
says, "If they . . . once knew where the
bung and the bit is . . . your purse and
the money;" and in the same wi-iter's
ItcliiKiii (if Ijiniiton, 160S (ivpi'. iii. 122),
we find a passage, "To learne . . . what
store of Bit he hath in his bag." Greene
in .1 Defense of Connif-catrliin;/, 1592
(Works, xi. 44) states, "Some . . . would
venter all the b\te in their bonng at (lii'c."
Bita Sen. The .Japanese name foi- bad
or counterfeit coins. See Shima Sen.
Bitt. See Bit.
Bizante. Sec Solidus.
Bizzichini. Promis (ii. ISO) (piofes a
document of the district of Cortona, dated
August 17, 1727, in which ar(> mentioned
coins called Bizzichini, which are valued iU
a ti-ifle liver seven Soldi.
Black Billon. See Billon.
Black Dogs. A cant name in Queen
Ainie's time for bad shillings or other silver coin. Ashton, in ']'hc Ixciijn of
(fueen Anne (ii. 225) mentions "The Art
of making Black Dogs, which are Shillings
or other pieces of Money, made only of
Pewter double Wash'd."*
Sec also Swift, Drtipier's Letters (iii.) ;
and Crosby (]i. 203).
Black Dogs. This name was given to
the Cayenne Sous when introduced in the
I'jiiglisli ishukls in tlie West Indies.
Black Farthing. A name given to the
Scotch Farthing issued in the reign of
James 111 (1460-1488). There appear to
be two varieties. One has on Ol>t<. 1. kkx
scoTdijvii, with Kcv. VILLA EDi\nvK(i and a
saltire cross in a circle. The other variety
has the crowned initials T. R. on the obverse,
and a crowned saltire cross on the
'] Black Mail. Wharton, Law Lexicon,
1864, states that this is "a certain rent of
money, coin, or other thing, anciently paid
to persons upon or near the borders, who
were men of influence, and allied with certain
robbers and brigands for protection
from the devastations of the latter; rendered
illegal by 43 Eliz. c. 13. Also rent
paid in cattle, otherwise called neat-gild."
Black Money. A general term for coins
ostensibly issued for sUver, but which actually
contain a large proportion of base
metal alloy, the latter soon giving them a
dark appearance. See Billon and Korten.
The principal coins thus debased were
the silver pennies, and from the twelfth
to the fourteenth centuries there is frequent
mention of the Denier Noir of
France, the Schwarze Pfennige of the German
States, and the Swarte or Zwarte Penninge
which originated in Brabant and the
Low Countries. They are also found in the
coinage of Denmark, Ireland, Scotland, and
in the Anglo-Gallic series.
In the reign of Richard II Ruding (i.
457) states that "among other expedients
to procure money, a writ was issued for
the discovering of black money, and other
subterraneous treasure hidden of old in
the county of Southampton, in whosesoever
hands it might be, and to seize it to the
King's use. He afterwards claimed black
money to the amount of 150 pounds of
full weight, which had been found in that
county, as belonging to him in right of
his crown."
As eai-ly as 1331 an ordinance was passed
"that all manner of black money which
had been commonly current in the King's
realm, sliould be utterly excluded."
Blacksmith Half Crown. A name given
to a nuU'ly struck half-crown of Charles I,
which was issued at Kilkenny in 1642.
Coins to the amount of £4000 were struck
under an onlinance of "The Confederated
Blacksmith Half Groat. A variety of
half groat issued in the reign of Charles I,
which received its name from the barbarous
workmanshii). Hawkins states that the
Blacksmith Half Crowns of the same period,
also very rude in design, "are now
generally considered to be Irish." See
British Niuuismatic Journal (xi. 317).
Blacksmith Tokens. A series of tokens
of copper and brass issued about 1820 and
usually classified with the Canadian
"d(mbtful" series. The majority of them
ai'e said to have been made in Montreal by
a blacksmith, from which fact the series
has received its name. For a detailed account
see Wood, Canadian Blacksmith Coppers,
Black Tang-Ka. See Tang-ka.
Blaffert, or Plappart, is a base silver
coin of the value of three Kreuzer or six
Rappen, introduced in Switzerland in the
fifteenth century, and a variety of St. Gallen
dated 1424 (Frey No. 21), is the
earliest coin known bearing Arabic numerals
with a Christian era.
The type wa.s soon copied in Germany.
The Hohlblaffert of Liibeek bears an eagle,
that of Mecklenburg a bull's head, that of
Liineburg a lion, etc. All of the preceding
were valued at two Pfennige. In the
Rhine Provinces the Blaftert was variously
computed at three Stuber or four Albus.
It was gradually abolished in the sixteenth
century, the Batzen taking its place.
An amusing story occurs in Cahn 's Miinz
und Geldgeschichte der irn Grossherzogtum
Baden Vereinigten Gehiete, 1911 (p. 274),
relating to a quarrel between the municipalities
of Constance and Berne because a
nobleman of the former town ridiculfed
these coins by the name of Kuhplapperte,
i.e., "cow plapparts.
Blamiiser. A silver coin of Munster,
Cleve, Liege, Dortmund, etc. It is referred
to in an ordinance of Bishop Christopher
Bernhard of Munster dated May 4,
1658, as a Schilling of Brabant or Blaumiiser
"to be current at three Schillinge
and five Pfennige." In Liege it was computed
at two Grosclien and in Cleve at
tliree Grosclien.
The name in Southern Germany was
variously written Blomiiser and Blomeiser,
and it is mentioned by Grimmelshausen, in
Simplicius Simplicissimus, 1669.
Blanc, or Blanque, also called Gros
Blanc, is the name of a silver coin which
was struck in France in the fourteenth
century, contemporaneously with the Gros
Tournois. Originally it was of very pure
silver from which circumstance it probably received its name, hut the later issues deteriorated
ill fineness. It was divided into
Deniers, the ([uaiitity of tlic hitter, however,
varied. Tlie jreneral type was tiiat
of the Gros, tiie Un\'^ cross being a conspicuous
feature, aiul tiie inscription hen-
EDU'TirM .SIT NOMKN DOMINI, etc., was retained
for a Umg period. The hiter issues
wei-e ehai-aeterized hy various synd)ols,
such as a sun, star, lily, etc., {jivin-j: rise
to distinctive titles, all of wiiicli will be
found under the word Ciros, infra.
The Bhnuiue appears in the Anglo-Gallie
coiuiifrc issued by Henry VI of England.
It was a billon groat, silvered over to hide
the baseness of the metal. There existed
large and small varieties, known respectively
as the Grand Bhnuiue or Gros
lllan(iue and the Petit lilanqtie.
The Blanque was striu-k in France as
late as 17'J1, in which year the Caisse do
Hun lie Poi at Paris issued a piece of si.v
Hlanes in copper.
Blanca, or Blanco. A Spanish coin of
inferior silver issued fi-oiu the fourteenth
to the sixteenth centuries. It receives its
name from its white, shiny appearance,
and corresponds to the German Albus aiul
the French Blanc.
The Blanca Agnus Dei api)eared originally
in the reign of Juan 1 ( i:37!)-l:]!)0),
and obtains its designation from the Paschal
Lamb on the obverse. It was struck at
'I'oledo, Burgos, etc. See De La Torre (No.
Blanc a la Couronne. A French silver
coin of the value of twelve Deniers Parisis
issued by John 11 (1850-1364). It receives
this name from the large crown
which is a conspicuous feature, and is also
known as the Gros Blamjue a la Couronne.
Blanc a la Patte d'Oie. A nickname
given to a variety of Blanc issued in
France in l^oT. It had a poorly executed
figure of the flours de lis, which was supposed
to bear some resemblance to the foot
of a goose.
Blanc a la Queue. This was struck by
.)ohn 11 of France in 13.35 to take the place
of the lilane a la Couroinie {q.v.).
Blanc a I'Ecu. A silver coin of Charles
VII of France. It was of large size and
bore a shield of fleurs de lis.
Blanc a I'Etoile. A variety of the Blanc
with a star in the centre. See Gros
BbuKiue a I'Etoile.
Blanc aux Trois Fleurs. A variety of
Denier coined in France in 135!1, but only
in use for a short period.
Blanc de Donne. A type of silver Gros
struck by Charles V of France. It bore a
letter K crowned, and was intended, as its
name implies, for presentation purposes
on si)eeial oeeasions.
Blanc Guenar. See Guenar.
Blancha. Du Cange cites an edition of
(iiacomo d'Aragona (1213-1276) which
mentions solidos de blancha iiwneta; and
he quotes from an ordinance of 1381 the
term "Blanchees, "' being the (juantit}' of
any article that could be purchased for a
Blanco. The Spanish equivalent of the
Blanc or Blaiujue. The Blancos Burgales
were pieces of two Deniers struck about
1258 bj- Alfonso X of Castile and Leon,
and ninety were equal to a gold Maravedi.
Bland Dollar. The popular name for
the silver dollar issued in the United States
from 1878 to 1904 inclusive. It owes its
origin to the Bland-Allison Act of February
28, 1878, which provided for a mininuim
monthly silver coinage of two million
dollars, and establishetl this coin of
4121/2 grains troy as legal tender.
The Act takes its name from Congressman
Richard Bland of ^Missouri, and Senator
William B. Allison of Iowa.
Blank. A coin of the Netherlands, of
inferior silver, issued during the sixteenth
century. It was originally of the value of
half a Stuiver, but its value fluctuated
greatly. The name was probably derived
from its white, shiny appearance when
newly struck.
Blank. See Plauehet.
Blankeel. See Blanquillo.
Blanque. See Blane.
Blanquillo, or Muzuna, sometimes incorrectly
referred to as Blankeel. A fornuu'
base silver coin of Morocco, the name
of which is a diminutive of blanca, given
to it on account of its white, shiny appearance.
It was divided into twenty-four
FaliLS. The issue terminated in the latter
part of the eighteenth century. See Muzuna Blaumiiser. See Blamiiser.
Blech, meaning "tin," is a German
slang term for money in general.
Blechmiinzen, i.e., tin coins, is a common
(i(>rm;iH name for the Braeteates
Blesensis, or Blesianis. A general name
for the Deiiici's struck by the Counts of
Blois, beginning with those of Thibaud IV,
ealk'd the Impostor (!)22-;)7S). They generally
bear tlie head of a wolf, which in
Celtic is called hlcz.
Blob. A popular name for the copper
coin of five cents struck for Ceylon in 1909
and 1910. See Spink (xviii. 12602).
Blomiiser. See Blamiiser.
Bluebacks. A nickname for certain issues
of the paper money of the Confederate
States, in contradistinction to the
Greenbacks of the North.
Blue William. Another nickname for
the preceding and used in various parts
of the Southern States of the United States
at the time. The name is a play upon the
words bill and Bill, the latter being a
familiar term for the name William.
Blunt. An English slang term for money
available at once. It was in use at the beginning
of the nineteenth century. Dickens,
in Oliver Twist, says, "I must have
some blunt from you to-night. '
Blutpfennig. The popular name for a
new or red Pfennig in allusion to its ruddy
Berthold Auerbaeh, in his Dichtungen
(i. 14) has the line:
"Ich habe keinen Blutpfennig."
Bluzger, or Blutzger. A base silver coin
issued in the Bishoiiric of Chur in the Canton
of Graubiinden from the middle of the
sixteenth to the end of the eighteenth century,
and also at Ilaldenstein during the
same period. The early types have a figure
of the cross and Madonna, and the
later issues have armorial bearings.
Constantin von Buttlar, Abbot of Fulda
(1 714-1 72(i) copied them.
They are compuled at seventy to the
Blyen. See Bolette.
Bo. A sipiare coin of Annam usually
assigned to circa B.C. 475-221. See Schroe-
der (p. 46), and Lacroix, Numismatique
Annnmite, 1900 (p. 52).
Boars' Feet. See Hams.
Bob. Tlie common nickname for an
English Shilling. J. H. Vaux, in his Plash
Dietionurij, 1812, has "Bob or Bobstick,
a Shilling," and Dickens uses the term in
the Pickwick Papers.
In the Athena'um, 1864 (558), is a statement
to the effect that the nickname is supposed
to have originated in Sir Robert
Walpole's time. <SVe Magpie.
Bocksthaler. The name given to a variety
of silver coins struck in the bishopric
of Chur, which have as a device a standing
ram (Bock), the armorial shield of this
The name, Bockspfennige, or BiJckler, is
similarly applied to coins of Schaffhausen,
which have a running ram as a design.
Boddiferus. Du Cange gives citations
showing that this name was given to some
early base silver coins of Liege, of which
36 were equal to a Florin.
Bodle. A Scotch copper coin, sometimes
known as the half-plack or two pence
Scotch. It appeared in the latter part of
the sixteenth centurj', and was last coined
in 1697.
The name is said to be a corruption of
Bothwell, a mintmaster, but no documentary
evidence to this effect is cited.
Its value in England was considerably
lower, as is indicated by R. Holme, in his
Armoury, 1688 (iii. 2), who says, "A
Bodle, three of them make a half-penny
Bbckler. See Bocksthaler.
Bohmen. The name given to the popular
Groschen of Prague bj^ the natives of
Silesia. It is probably due to the figure
of the lion of Bohemia and the inscription,
DEI GRATIA REX BOEMiE, found on these
Boeki. See Trade Dollar.
Boeotian League. See League Coinage.
Boeserokken. See Bazarucco.
Bolette. A leaden token issued at Prankfort
a. M. as early as 1497 and in use until
tlie beginning of the seventeenth century.
Joseph and Fellner, in their work on the
coinage of that city (1896, pp. 39-40), state
that the Boleton, or Blyen (i.e., Blei-lead)
were of two sizes : the larger were redeemed for twelve Heller and the smaller
for six Heller.
Bolivar. A silver coin of Venezuela, of
the same value as the Franc, and named
after Simon Bolivar, the liberator. It is
divided into one hundred Centimos, or Ccntavos.
For the different systems of monetary
standards in use in Venezuela, see the
Annual Report of the Director of the U. iS'.
Mint, 1912, and for tlic Peso system, still
in use to some extent, sec Peso. Tlie Bolivar
is sometimes called Veuezolauo.
Boliviano. The unit of the silver standard
of Bolivia, and divided into one hundred
The former gold Boliviano, of the same
country, introduced in 1868, was equal to
half an E.scudo.
Bolognino. Oriiriiially a silver coin of
Bologna issued during the Republican period
(1191-1337), and of the value of half
a Grosso. It also occurs in the coinage of
Modena as a Republic (1226-1293); was
copied for Acpiila, under Ludovico II
(1382-1384), and is found as a billon coin
in Ferrara in the thirteenth century. The
half of the same coin was known as the
In the sixteenth century, when Bologna
was under Papal nde, a Bolognino was
struck in copper. Copper Bolognini were
also issued for Modeiui under Rinaldo
(1694-1737), and for Lucca earlj' in the
eighteenth century.
Bone. A slang term, which ap])ears to
be confined to the United States, and which
was originally apidied to a silver dollar,
but was afterwards used for a dollar
whether of paper or metal. The name
jirobably originated from the bone or ivory
counters or chips used in the game of
Bon Gros. Tlie French equivalent for
Gute Groschen (q.v.).
Bonk. A name given to the rectangular
copper coins struck in Java from 1796 to
1818. See Netscher and van der Chijs
(passim), where Bonks, varying from one
half Stinver to eight Stuivers, are described.
A similar coin, known as the Tang {q.v.),
was issued bv the Dutch East India Company
for Ceylon.
Bonn. Dinneen, Jrish-Enylish Dictionarij,
l!M)4, has: "Bonn, a itiece of money, a
groat, a medal : bona airgid, a silvci- medal
bonn or, a gold medal ; Iiouti buidhc, a yellow
medal ; bonn ruadli, a cnpi)cr or brass
medal; bonn ban, a shilling."
O'Reilly, lrish-En(jlish Divtionarij, has
Bonn sian, a half-penny.
There is a Gaelic proverb, "Is fearr
caraid sa cuairt, na bonn .sa sparan," i.e.,
"A friend at court is better than a groat in
the |iurse.
Bonnet Piece. A gold coin of .lames V
of Scotlantl, issued only in 1539 and 1540,
and remarkable as being the earliest dated
Scottish coin.
It is so called fi'om the king's head being
decorated witii a bonnet, or scpiarc cap, instead
of a crown.
Its weight is 88i/> grains, and there are
one third and two third i)ieces of similar
This coin is sometimes referred to as a
Ducat, but this designation belongs more
properly to the gold coin struck by Mary
Stuart in 1558.
Bonnet Type. A designation em])loyed
to classify Englisii silver coins. Thus on
some of the pennies of William 1 the term
is used where the full-face bust, and large
crown with long ])endent lappets occur.
Bononenus. The name given to the
mezzo (J rosso struck at liologna by Po|)e
Eugenius 1\' from 1431 to 1438. It has on
the reverse the figure of St. Petronius seated,
holding in his hand the cathedral of the
city. The inscription reads s. petroniv. iik
Booby Head. The ]ioiiular name for
one of the varieties of the cents of the
United States issued in 1839. It has a
large, stu|)i(l-looking head of Liberty on
the obverse.
Borage Groat. Jamieson, Eti/niolofjical
Dirtioiiiirii of till' Srottisli Lanijuaiic. states
that this was a four-])(Miny piece formerly
current in Scotland, and that it may have
received this name fi-oiii the use of liorax
as an alloy in its com])osition.
Borbi. Kelly (]). 4) states that this was
an Kgyi)tian coi)i)er coin at the beginning
of the nini'Icenth century, and that 320 of
them wei-e vi[\m\\ to the Pia.stre. Conf.
Bord. A slang name for a Shilling. See
Bordata. An Italian term applied to
coins tliat are not perfectly round.
Bord Halfpenny. Wharton, Law Lexicon,
1864, states that this is "a customary
small toll paid to the lord of a town for
setting up boards, tables, booths, etc., in
fairs or markets."
Borgesi Neri, i.e., black Bourgeois. According
to Promis (ii. 12), this was a variety
of base silver Denier struck in the
borough of Bressa, and by an ordinance
of Turin of December 15, 1335, it was
valued at one eighth of the Grosso.
Borjookes. The name given by the
Abyssinians to glass beads of different colors"
which were formerly current as money,
and which were computed at the rate of
thirty to the Para. See Wakea, and Kharf
Borodovaya, or Beard Money. Among
Peter the Great's measures to bring Russia
up to the level of European civilization
was his decree that beards should not
be worn. To encourage shaving he imposed
a tax, varying in amount, according
to the social standing, the mercantile
class paying the highest tax for the privilege
of retaining their beards. When the
tax was paid a token was given as a receipt.
Chaudoir cites a piece in silver, dated
1705, of the size of the twenty Kopeck silver
coin. Schubert (p. 103) states that
the specimens in silver are modern, and
did not exist in the time of Peter I. Of
those in copper there were two varieties.
One is like the silver piece and the other
has the size and weight of a Ruble, and
is square. They are dated 1699, 1705, and
Boss. The native name for the African
cowries formerly used as a money of account
on the Gold Coast.
Nol)ack (p. 311), gives the following
table of e(iuivalents
2'i Cowries = 1 Tnbii.
40 (^>wrl('s = l namhn.
Kion ('owrics = l r.iiss Dollar.
1000 Cowri(>s = l Cnbps (sinnlll.
2000 Cowrlps=l Cain's (largp).
When converted into an actual monetary
unit HiOO Cowries are equal to one sixteenth
of an ounce of gold dust.
Bossonaya. A Spanish billon coin
struck by the Counts of Barcelona during
the thirteenth century, to distinguish the
type from the contemporary issues of the
kings of Aragon. See Blanchet (i. 312).
The name is also written Bassanaya and
Balssonaya, and Du Cange quotes documents
of 1209 and 1343, the former of
which states that "fuit dspera luoneta de
Bassanaifa quae chiravit ires annos."
Boston Money. In the Colonial Records
of Pennsylvania, 1683 (i. 85), there
is a passage reading, "their Abuse to ye
Governm', in Quining of Spanish Bitts and
Boston money." The latter expression
probably refers to the Pine Tree Coiias
Botdrager. The popular name for the
double Gros which was struck in Brabant
and Flanders early in the fifteenth century.
The name signifies "pot carrier,"
the allusion being to the helmet on the
lion's head which looks like an inverted
pot or kettle. See van der Chijs (p. 123-
The type was copied in the various provinces
of the Low Countries, and the coin
is also referred to as the Brabandsche
Leeuw and the Gehelmde Leeuw. See
Botinat. A silver coin of Georgia which
ajipeared in the reign of Queen Rusudan
(A.D. 1227-1247), and which received its
name from the fact that it was a close copy
of the coins struck by Nicephoras Botoiiiates
of the Byzantine Empire. See Langlois
(]!. 73) ; and Ponrobert (No. 4253).
Boudjou. See Budschu.
Bouhamstash. A billon coin of Tripoli,
introduced by Nedschib Pascha in 1835.
and of the value of fifteen Paras.
Boulton's Twopence. A very large and
lieautiful copper coin, issued in 1797 at the
Sdho mint, Birmingham, which owes its
existence to Matthew Boiilton (h. 1728).
Its weight was exactly two ounces, and the
c()rres|)oiiding penny was one ounce; yet
this weight rendered them unwieldy and
they were only issued in the year above
mentioned. See Montagu, and Spink (ix.
4519). They were long used as weights by
shojikeepers, and from their size obtained
the nickname of "Cartwheels."
This is the first and last twopenny piece
that was ever coined by authority in copper Bouquet Series. See Sou Tokens.
Bourbe, also called Burbe. A copper
coin of Tunis, introduced at the hcfrinnintr
of the eifrliteenth century, and of the value
of one twelfth of an Asper.
Bourbonnais. The name given to a varietv
of Denier and Ohole struck oriRinally
by" Louis VII of France (ll:57-nS()),
which have on the reverse a cross and the
inscription, horbonensis. They should uot
be confused with the issues for Bourses by
the same ruler, which have on the reverse,
VRii.s niTVKicA. See Blanchet (i. 149).
Bourdelois. See Denier Bourdelois.
Bourgeois. This term was applied to
vai'inus varieties of the billon Deniers issued
in France and Lorraine during the
thirteenth and fourteenth centui-ies. As
the name implies, it was used to designate
coins of the baser sort from those of pure
The Bo\irgeois Fort, i.e., the heavy Bourgeois,
bore the inscription, bvrgensis for-
Tis, and the Bourgeois .Simi)le was inscribed
HVRGENSis Novvs. Sce Borgcsi Neri.
Bourse. See Beutel.
Bousebbatash. A billon coin of Tripoli,
introduced by Nedschib I'ascha in 18:55,
and of the value of seven and a half Paras.
Bout de L'Isle Tokens. The iianu> given
to a sei'ies of twelve tokens which were
struck at Birmingham and imported to
Caiuida to be used as tickets or passes over
three ditVerent bridges which were built to
unite the Lsland of Montreal with the
mainland. They are described in detail in
Breton (p. 43), and see Repentiguy (infra).
Boutleteen. A billon coin of Tripoli, introduced
by Nedschib Pascha in IHlif), and
of the value of thirty Paras.
Bowed Money. A term used to indicate
coins which were purposely bent and
then given as pledges of love or friendship.
Thomas (irccne, in The Art of Con-
)n/-C(itchi>Hi, ir)!)2, has as follows: "Taking
forth a bowed groat and an old |ienny
bowi'd he gave it \sic\ her."
\ i>assage in the will of Sir Edward
Howard. ir)12, copied in Arrhdrnhfiin
(xxxviii. :{70), reads, "I bequeathe him
my rope of bowed nobles."
Box Thaler. The same as Sehraubthaler
(r/.r. ).
Brabandsche Leeuw. See Botdrager.
Brabandsche Mijt. See Myte.
Brabandsch Schild. A gold coin introduced
i)nrsuant to the OrdonnHutie of May
10, 14:!(). it was struck by Philip I, Constable
of France and Duke of Ligny and
St. Pol. It has on the obverse the fulllength
figure of the Duke holding an armorial
shield. See v.d. Chijs, De Munten
. . . Hrahand en Limburg, 1851 (p. 141),
and conf. Sehild, infra.
Brabant. A liase silver coin which circulated
in England toward the close of the
thirteenth century. For a short time tiiey
were allowed to at the rate of two for
a penny, but were i)rohil)ited in IIHO. The
name was probably given to them from the
fact that they origiiuited in Flanders, Hrabant,
or the Low Countries.
Ruding (i. 201) states that "these coins
were distinguished by the mimes of pollards,
crocards, scaklings, brabants, eagles,
leonines, sleepings, etc." Ilolinshed, in his
Chronicle, 1577- '87 (iii. :«)!)), adds that
"all these were white monies, artificiallie
made of siluer, copper, and sulphur."
Brabant Thaler. A variety of the Albertusthaler
iq.v.) issued for the Low
Countries. They have the Burgumly,
in the angles of which are crowns and the
order of tlie CTolden Fleece.
Brabeon. A name employeil in Switzerland
to desigiuite a certain class of medals
which were distributed as awards for proficiency
to .scholars in colleges, schools, etc.
The custom appears to have originated at
Basle in the latter part of the sixteenth
century. They are also known as Scludpfennige.
Bracata. A Polish term signifying
money that has the stamp of the Braeatori,
or mint master. Du Cange (i.) cites
an ordinaiu'e of 1467 reading tiiiniita pecunia
hracaia, etc.
Bracteates. From the Latin brarlra. a
thin piece of metal, is a iuiiiu> us\ially given
to iiieccs of thin silver, impressed with
a die, on which the device is cut in relief.
Conse(piently the lines and figures del)
ressed on the one side appear raised on
the other, and the obverse of the coin preseuts the same features as the surface of
the die.
They are supposed to have ori<;iiiated at
the beg-iiinino; of the twelfth century in
Thurin^U'ia, and tliey were copied in other
German provinces as well as in Switzerland,
Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, and
Scandinavia. They were in use until the
latter part of the fourteenth century, at
which time the many types of Groschen
gradually supplanted them.
The majority are of silver, but gold ones
have been found; some of tliem, struck in
copper and very base silver, probalily
served the same purpose as the tokens of
succeeding periods.
The name, Bracteate, however, was not
applied to these coins until the eighteenth
century. Their contemporary designations
were Pfennige, or Denarii, and that
tliey tooktlie place of the latter pieces and
passed as' current money is attested by the
words nunnis, inoncta, denarius, etc., which
are occasionally found in their inscriptions.
To these varieties the name Schrift Bracteaten
is usually applied.
Bragone. The popular name in Italy
for the Hungarian Ducat extensively
struck during tlie sixteenth century. The
word is a corruption of brdchc, i.e., trousers,
and these coins exhibit the standing
figure of the ruler, with large, expansive
Braise, i.e., glowing coals. A slang
French exin-ession for money, i.e., an allusion
to "coal to keep the pot boiling."
Branca Moeda. A term iised by Portuguese
Humisniatists, and corresponding to
the Frencli Blanc or Blanque.
Brandthaler. The name given to a Polish
Thaler, issued at Thorn, in 1629, to
commemorate the gallant defence of that
city against the Swedes under General
Wrangel. There are a number of minor
varieties, all exhi])iting a view of the city
in Hames, and tlu» inscri])tion fides et con-
Brasangium. See Brassage.
Brasher Doubloon. A gold coin, sti-uck
in the city of New York in 1787. It obtains
its name from its originatoi', Ei)hraim
Braslier, a goldsinitli, whose place of business
was at number one, C'lierry Street.
Brasher made applieatimi to tlie Lcgisla-
ture of the State of New York for permission
to strike copper coins. His petition
was not granted, and in consequence only
the gold Doubloons are known.
Braspenning. A base silver coin of Brabant,
Friesland, and the Low Countries, in
general use during the fifteenth century
and later. It appears to have been originally
of the vahie of two Stuivers, but
later was equal to onl^^ one Stuiver and
eight Pfenninge. Some authorities refer
to it as the Dubbele Jager. See Blanchet
(i. 462).
Brass. The terms first, second, and third
brass (or bronze), applied to Roman coins
according to their sizes, is convenient but
unscientific. The first brass, or Great
Brass, is in reality the Sestertius ; the Second
Brass, or Middle Brass, is the Dupondius
and As; and the Third Brass, or
Small Brass, is the Semis and other small
It should further be rememliered that
the latter class is of copper; the larger
coins are neither brass nor bronze, but
composed of orichalcum, a mixture of copper
and zinc.
Brass. An Pjuglish colloquial term for
a copper coin, but chiefly used for the
plural. The expression can be traced to
the fourteenth century. Langland, in Piers
Ploughman, circa 1362 (iii. 189), has
"Beere heor bras on thi Bac. " In his
translation of the New Testament in 1526,
Tindale renders Matthew (x. 9) thus:
"Posses not gold, nor silver, nor brasse.
At a later period the word was slang
or dialect for money in general, as the
following quotations indicate:
"Shanio that tllP imisps shinlld bo bought iinil sohl
Kor evory iicnsanf.s brass." —I'iishop HaU. Satin\^, liiitT.
•Thou ilamniMl anil liixurlmis mountain goat,
Offer'st me brass?" —Shakfspi'aro. King Hciiiii thr Fifth (iv. 4).
"Who ne'er ch-spises books that bring him brass.",
Byron, Hints from Horace (.548),
Brassage. A French term used to indicate
the variation between the actual
value of the metal, and the denomination
stamped on the coin. This difl^erence in
former years constituted the payment
wiiieh the official who struck the coins received.
Sec Slegclpenninge.
Du Cangc (i.) states that as early as the
thirteenth century the name Brasangium
was given to the official whose duty it was to determine the aliove-immetl variations.
Sec Seifrnoragre.
Bravuda. A monetary denomination
mentioned in ordinanees of the reign of
Dnarte I, Kinf,' of Portii<ral (148:M4:!S),
and cniniintcd at three Diidieiros.
Bread Tokens. The name fjiveii to a
series of tokens extensively issued in Nurenilierjj,
Paderhorn, and other German
towns durinfr tlie sixteentii eentnry and
later, which on ]iresentation eoidd be redeemed
for a loaf of bread. They are of
various shajies and metals, and some of
them bear the inserijjtion trot or URdD. A
I-?rodmarke was struck bv the Kornvercin
of KUierfcld in 1817.
Breeches Money. A nickname fjiven to
flic coins of the English Commonwealth
{ 1()48-166()) on account of the el(>n<rated
shields on the obverse which bear a fanciful
resemblance to a pair of trousers.
Breite Groschen, also called Breitfjroschcn,
oi- (4rossi Lati, was a name applied
in the fourteenth century aiul later to certain
ty])es of Bohemian (iroschen of large
module, to distinguish tluMii from smaller
pieces of the same denomination, (irossi
Praeeisi, which were sti'uck contemporaneously.
It shoidd be remcmliercd, however, that
the ad.jective hrcit is employed in a genral
way to define the broad type, as distinguished
from the rlirk. or thick specimens.
This a Mints for such names as the l^rcitpfemiig
of Augsburg; the Breiter Thaler,
etc. S,( Dickfhaler.
Bremsenthaler. A name given to a Thaler
of Liilicck, struck in 1537, so called because
a fl.v (Bremse) appears in the field
on the obverse. The "Bremse" was the
coat of arms of Nicholas von Bi-ombseii,
the Biii'gomaster.
Brenag^um. According to Wliai'ton,
Law I.r.riro)!, 18G4, this was "a |)a,vmeiit
in bran, which tenants ancientl.v made to
feed their lords' hounds."
Brick Tea is a recognized unit of value
in some parts of Burma and Tibet; the
ditferent (lualities each liear a distinctive
mark and jiass at diflf'erent prices.
Clement Williams, in Throufjh liurwa io
Wrxtern China, 1864 (p. 34), has a note
which seems to refer to a currency consisting
of cakes of tea. He says: "The only
kinds apparently known in the market at
Bamo are the flat discs of China tea and
the balls of Shan tea. The discs weigh
twenty Tickals each ; seven piled together
make a packet which used to sell at one and
one-half Tickals and two Ticks" \sk\.
Sec also Terrien de la Couperie (.\x) and
the Am. .lournal of Numismatics (xli. 79).
Bridge Money. The name given to a
variety of Chinese metallic ciirnMicy on account
of their bridgelike appearance.
Ramsden, who describes these pieces in detail
(pp. L'!)-:)2), adds. "I would suggest
the name of Tingle Dangle as more appropriate,
since they will jirobably result to
be miniature token representatives of the
larger musical instruments which are still
to be seen in certain |)arts of China." The
Chinese name for Bridge Jloney is Kiao
Pi, and for Tingle Dangle moneV is Kiu"
Shih Pi.
Brillen Dukat. A gold coin of Denmark
struck by Christian IV in 1647. The
reverse exhibits a pair of spectacles
("Brille"), with the motto vinio ihka
noMi. There is a corresponding half.
Brillenthaler. The name given to a
variety of Tlialer issued b.v Duke .Julius of
Brunswick-Liincburg at (Joslar from 1586
to 1589. They are of the .so-called "Wild
Man" type, and from the arm of this figure
there hangs a skull, an hour-glass, and
a pair of spectacles ("Brille"). »Sfrr Louis
aux IjUliettes.
Briot's Crown. The name given to a
variet.v of Crown executed about 1633 by
Nicliohis Briot, who had been appointed at
the Tower mint by Charles I in 1628. This
piece, though not of vei'v sjiirited workmaiishi]),
is neat and well f(H'mcd, and was
struck by the indciiciident ajiparatus which
Briot owned. There is a half crown of the
same t.vpe. Briot's coins can be distinguished
by the initial B.
Briquet. A silver coin of the fifteenth
ciMitury issued in Brabant, Burgundy, and
the Low Countries. It has on the obverse
the figure of a lion holding a fire-steel in
his claw. There are correspoiuling doubles,
halves, and quarters.
The word means a steel for striking fire,
and the chain attached to the Order of the
(iolden Fleece instituted in 1429 by Philip
the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was decorated with sparkling precious stones, and
golden fire-steels.
The Dutch equivalent is Vuurijzer, and
by this name these coins are known in Holland,
Gueldres, etc. See Azzalino and
Britain Crown. An English gold coin,
struck in tlic reign of James I pursuant to
a proclamation of October 20, 1604. Its
original value was five shillings, which was
raised to five shillings and sixpence in
1611. The union of the kingdoms is referred
to in the legend Ilcnricus rosas rc(jna
Jacobus, i.e., "Henry unites the roses,
James unites the Kingdoms." This coin
was discontinued in 1661- '62. See Crown.
Britannia Groat. A name given to the
English silver fonrjience which was revived
for general circulation in 1836 and
discontinued in 1856. The following curious
note concerning these coins appeal's
in Hawkins
"These pieces are said to have owed
their existence to the pressing instance of
Mr. Joseph Hume, from whence they, for
some time, bore the nickname of Joeys. As
they were very convenient to pay short
cab fares, the lion. Member of Parliament
was extremely unpopular with the drivers,
who frecjuently received f)nly a groat where
otherwise they would have received a sixpence
without any demand for change."
British Dollar. See Dollar.
Broad. Another name for the Unite
iq.i'.), a gold coin issued by James I of
In the reign of Charles II the term was
used to distinguish the hammered twentyshilling
i)ieces from the new coins of the
same value then introduced called Guineas
The Bi'oads were called in and declared
to be no longer current in 1732-'i3, the
nia,)oi'it\' of them having become much diminished
in value and size by wear and clipping.
Broad Thaler. See Breite Groschen.
Brockage. A faulty piece in coining: a
damaged coin. In a report of the mintmastci-
s under Klizaiicth, trinp. 1572, mcntiiiii
is made of "brocage" in tiie making of
six pi'iices. Sec Num. Chrun. (Ser. iv. Vol.
16. p. 75).
Brod. Sec Bread Tokens.
Broke Money. A term used to indicate
the cut Bracteates, Deniers, and especially
Pennies of the Middle Ages. The
process of quartering or halving ap]>ears
to be adapted to the Anglo-Saxon coinage,
e.g., to the Pennies of Althelred II (978-
1016), on which the shears or chisel is
guided by the on the reverse.
The practice of cutting coins was sanctioned
by Philip VI of France by an ordinance
of May 29, 1347. See Blanchet, Les
Monnaics Coupees in the Revue Nuinismatique
(iv. 1).
In the Burij Wills, 1463 (repr. 1850, 41),
there is a reference to "broke silvir.
Bronze. An alloy made of ninety-five
parts of copper, four parts of tin, and one
part of zinc, which has been found more
serviceable for coining purjtoses than pure
copper. A somewhat similar mixture was
em]iloved by tlie Greeks and Romans, but
among modern nations it was not used luitil
1850, when the Swiss Government began
to i.ssue coins of this metal. France
adopted it in 1852, Sweden in 1855, England
in 1860, and Belgium in 1861. See
Bronzo. The name given to a small copper
coin which appears at Messina, Ravenna,
etc., before the tenth century. The
Bronzi are generally of very rude workmanship,
and a number of types have both
Latin and Cufic inscriptions.
Brown. An English slang term for a
coi)per coin, especially a halfpenny, in allusion
to its color.
Brown Money. A dialect word used
both in Ireland and in Devonshire for
copper coins.
Briickenpfennige. Sec Lanclsberger Pfennigc.
Brule. A copjicr coin struck in the
Bishojiric of Liege from about 1513 to the
end of the century. It was valued at four
Stuivers. See de Chestret (jmssim).
Brummer. A base silver coin of Poland,
struck by Sigismund III at the beginning
of the seventeenth century. It is a variety
of the Drei|i(ilker (q.v.), and receives its
name from Bromberg, where it was coined.
Bruneti, or Bruni. A term used by
Italian numismatists to indicate coins that
have become greatly oxidized, and to such pieces that are subject to oxidation on aet'ouiit
of the impurity of the metal.
Brusselaar. A varietj' of the liouhle
BriipH't issued hy JMaximiiian in 14M8 during,'
tiie minority of Philij) tiie (iood. It
has on the reverse an ornamented cross,
witii tlie letter B in the centre, from which
circumstance it is assumed that it was
stnii'k at Brussels. See Prey (No. 298).
Bryan Dollars. The name given to a
series of satirical pieces issued in 1S!)() and
1!K)0 durinjj;' the first and second "free silver"
campaign of William J. Bryan. They
occur ill .silver and other metals and are
of various shapes, sizes, and designs.
Brymann. A billon coin of Brabant,
struck in l:iM and later. The type i)rescMts
two shields placed side by side, with
small lions over each. For a detailed account
of these ]iieces sec van der ("hijs (p.
96). Their value is mentioned as being
equal to four Grooten of Vilvorde.
Bu. A small, rectangular Japanese gold
coin, first i.ssued in 15!)!). It was the fourth
part of a Ryo, and bears the inscri|)tion,
Ichi liu, meaning one Bu. The Bu was
also divided into four pai'ts, each one being
called Shu.
The silver Bu was introduced in 1830,
and contiiuied in use until the introduction
of the Meiji currency in 1870.
Buaya. A copper coin of the Malay
Peninsula. Sff I' The word means
a crocodile, and is probably derived from
the old tin ingot money cast in this shape
and minted at Selangor, etc.
Buck. A slang term used in some parts
of the I'nited States for a dollar. The word
is of comi)aratively recent origin and the
etymology is unknown.
Buckscha. >SVt Kabir.
Budata. A coin of Palermo i.ssued in
liisti Miiil prohibited and retired from circulation
in 1G!(8. Delia Hovere, Mrmoric
Storirhr . . . supra Ic Monctr hits.te, 1814
(12!t), gives an account of this debased
currency ami asserts that it was composed
of a mixture of copper and chalk or plaster.
Budgrook. A coin of liombay, first issued
under the charter of KiTT, granted to
the East India Company. The name is
p?-obably a variation or corruption of the
Portuguese Bazarucco {q.v.}. It was
struck in copper, tin, and lead, and was
usually com|)uted at one forty-eighth of a
Budschu, or Boudjou. A former silver
coin of Algiers, introduced at the Iteginning
of the nineteenth century and divided
into twenty-four Muzuna.s.
The midtii)les and divisions of this coin
all have their particular nanu's, as follows:
2 Budschu, called Zudi, or Sondi Budschu;
1 P.udschn, called Rial Btulschu : 14 Budsehu,
called Rebja, or Rebia Budschu; '/^
P>udschu, called Temin Bud.schu.
Biiggeli. A Swiss nickname for a coin
of more or less concave foi-m. "Biickel"
means a bent back or hunch back.
Bugne. A base silver coin struck in
Metz and current in Lorraine during the
fifteenth century and later. It is mentioned
in an ordiiuuice of 1511 as having a
value of ten Deniers.
There are both niunieiiial and e|)iseo])'ii
tyjies, and the usiud devices bear a figni'c
of St. Stephen, with the inscription .s'.
It is .sometimes calleil Tiercelle. Sec
I'.Ianchet (486).
Bugslaver, probably a corrui)tiou of
Bogislauer. The poptdai' name for the
small silver cuius issued in Pommerania
under Bogeslaus X (1471-152:?) and his
Buhloli, or Bahloli. A coin of mixed
metal, weighinj^' abdut 145 grains, iutrnduced
b\- P>ahlol Lodi, the Afghan rider i>\'
Dehli, A.II. 855-8!)4 (A.D. 1450-1488). It
was the standard coin for about seventy
years. Nrr Thomas (No. 311).
Bull. A slang expression for an Kuiilisli
Crown piece. J. II. Vaux, in his Flush
Dictidiiiirii. 1812, says: "Bull, a Crown
or ti\-e Sliilliugs."
Bullet Money. Srr Tieal.
Bullion. The original meanintr of the
word ajiix'ars to have been a ndnt or a.ssay
office, but the writers of the sixteenth century
soiuetinies refer to it as a jilaee of
The Tn-iiics dr In Lcii. 1641 (p. 43),
states that "Bullion ... is the place
where gold is tryed." and Blount, in his
Ijdw Dicliiiiiiiric. KiTfl, has: "Bullion . . .
sigiufies sonu'times the Kings Ex<"hange, or place whither such Gold in the lump is
brought to be tryed or exchanged."
The definition in use at the present time,
i.e., gold or silver in the lump, as distinguished
from coin or manufactured articles,
can be traced to the latter part of the
sixteenth century. Thomas North, in his
translation of Plutarch's Lives of the Noble
Grecians and Romans, 1580 (p. 865), says:
"Bringing with him all his plate, both Gold
and Silver, unto the Mint-master, he gave
it him to put into bullion, and so to be
converted into currant [sic] coin."
Bundesthaler. The name is usually
given to any silver coin of Convention
Money (q.v.). The Schweizer Bundesthaler
is in reality a medal designed by
Jakob Stampfer (obit. 1579) to commemorate
the foundation of Swiss Independence.
See Schmalkaldischcr Bundesthaler.
Bung. A slang term used by thieves in
referring to a purse. See Bit.
Bungtowns. A name given to clumsy
imitations of the English half pennies
which circulated extensively in Pennsylvania
and the other states in the latter part
of the eighteenth century.
The name is probably derived from the
slang term, "to bung," meaning to cheat
or deceive.
There is an extensive list of them in Atkins.
See also Amer. Journal of Nnniisiiiatirs
(xxxiii. 67, xxxvi. 94).
Bun Sen. A Kwanei sen (q.i'.) having
the character Bun (learning) on the reverse.
The coin was made in 1668 from
the fragments of the Daibutsu, or great
image of Buddha, at Nara. The last pieces
to be made from the Daibutsu statue are
called "Tori Sumi" Sen (gathered endings),
which have this inscription as well
on the reverse.
Burbe. See Bourbe.
Burgales. See Blancos Burgales.
Burgunderthaler. Scr Albertusthaler.
Burigozzo. A iieavy silver Testone of
the value of 32 Soldi, struck by the Emperor
Charles V for the Duchv of Milan
(1535-1556). It has a bust of the Emperor
on one side and a standing figure of
St. Ambrosius on the reverse.
Burrie, or Bauri. A money of account
in the Maldive Islands, and equal to twenty
Cowries (q.v.).
Bursarienzeichen. A series of copper
tokens struck by the bursar of the guild
or chapter at Munster and Paderborn from
1543 to 1633. They are of the denominations
of three Schillinge, 12, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1
Pfennig, and one Heller. The value is
on one side and a figure of St. Paul on the
reverse. Many are countermarked with
the arms or name of the bursar.
Busch (plural Buschen). In 1493 Hermann
IV, Archbishop of Cologne, the duke
of Julich and Berg, and the municipal
authorities of the city of Cologne, held a
conference to adjust the irregular monetary
system then prevalent, and agreed
upon the following values : Weisspfennige,
24 to a Gulden; Blanken, 12 to a Gulden;
Double Buyschen, 18 to a Gulden; Simple
Buj'schen, 36 to a Gulden ; Half Bu.yschen,
72 to a Gulden; Old Morchen (Moergyhe),
8 to a Weisspfennig ; Neu Morchen: 12 to
a Weisspfennig.
The above appears to be an early reference
to a small copper coin which derived
its name from a bou(iuet or bunch of flowers
and leaves which appeared on one side.
These coins were later identified with the
cit.y of Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle. The
obsidional pieces of six and twelve sols
issued in 1597 are sometimes called Buschen,
and in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries the twelve and four Heller
pieces had a respective value of three
and one Buschen. They were struck as
late as 1790 or 1792 and were abolished by
the Prussian coinage system of 1821.
Bussignarfi. According to Caucich, Bol-
Irttino (li Nuinisniafica Ifaliana (iii. 34),
this was a name used in Ancona to designate
either the mezzi Ducati, or the mezzi
Scudi d'oro of twenty Bolognini. •
Bussola, or Bussolotto. A pojnilar name
for the Grosso issued at Mantua from the
period of Ludovico III. Gonzaga (1444-
1478) to Carlo II (1637-1647). The word
means a pyx, and these coins have on the
obverse the figure of a pyx, used for holding
the host.
Bussolotto Papale. This was another
name for the Giulio struck in Parma by
Pope Clement VII, the type being copied
from the preceding coin.
Butaca, or Butki. A former gold coin
of Morocco, the name of which is probably a corruption of the Pataca (q.v.). Tts value
was two Rials or twouty-seven Ukkias.
Butchers' Half-pence. This torin is used
1)\- Dean Swift in his Prapicrs' Letters,
1724 (iii), and implies eouiiterfeit or very
hase silver eoins.
Butgen. A silver eoin issued at Campen,
(!roniiij,'fii, Deveiiter, /wolle, etc., during
the tit'teciilli and sixteenth centuries. It
appears to have been of the value of two
l'lal<i<en, and is sometimes referivd to as
the half (iroot. See Frey (No. 45!)).
Butki. /SVe Butaca.
Buttala. The popular name for a coin
of Piaeen/a issued duriu": the seventeenth
century and originally of a value of ten
Soldi. Its value, however, fl\ietuated eonsiderahly,
as in a monetary ordinance of
Salihioneta of 164S, the Ii\ittala is mentioned
as e<|ual to 14 Soldi, liavinfi: lieen
ehanjred from 12 Soldi.
Buzerook. See Bazarueco.
Buzzard. A .slang term formerly apjilied
to the silver dollar of the United
States on account of the huzzarddike eagle
on the reverse.
Byoke. An ob.solete form of writing
Baioceo {q.v.).
Byte. An old English form of Bit iq.i'.).
Byzant. See Solidus.