World Coins Dictionary of Numismatic Names D.

Daalder, or Daelder. The equivalent in
lii-aliiint and the various provinces of tlie
Low Clountries for t.lie Tlialer. Tliis coin
varied in value, in some parts of the
Netherlands it was the same as two Gulden
and five Stuivers, while in others it
was equal to thirtv-two Patards. See
Dabou. See Dull.
Daelder. Sir Daalder.
Dagger Money. A sum of money formerly
paid to the .justices of assize on the
northern circuit in England to provide
against maraiulers.
Dahab. An Ab.yssinian mone.y of account.
Srr Wakea.
Daidong Chun. The Korean name for
silver coins with porcelain centres on
reverse minted in 1882 but never put into
circulation. They come in three denominations,
one, two and three Chun. See Um-
Daing. Tlie name given to the cast silver
ingots of Burmah. They are the earliest
types of money of this country.
Dala. See Akahi Dala.
Dalar. The Polish equivalent of Thaler
and like the German t.vpe divided into
thirty Groszy corresponding to Groschen.
It was originallv struck bv Sigismund III
Daler. See Plate Money, De Gortz
Daler, Rigsdaler, and Species.
Daler. A coin of the Danish West Indies
introduced in 1904 and equal to five
Francs or five hundred Bits. It is issued
in gold in four and ten Daler denominations.
Dam. A eojijier coin of Hindustan, and
of about the same value as the Paisa, i.e.,
the fortieth part of the Rupee. Of the
Moghul emperors, the Dams of Akbar
(1556-1605) were minted at Lahore, Delhi,
Malpnr, etc. The Bahraanis of Kolbarga
also emplo.ved this currency.
The Phoka Dam is a Nepalese copper
coin belonging to the reign of Surendra
Vikranui (1847). See Thomas (p. 439 et
seq.), and Sihansah and Suka [infra).
Damareteion. See Demareteion.
Damba. An African money of account.
See Boss.
Dampang. See Tamjiaug.
Damri. A copper coin of Hindustan
and ecpial to one eighth of the Dam {q.i>.).
Danake. The Aavaxr; of the Greeks. At
first it designated a small silver coin in the
East, but later came to be applied to a
copper coin. In the Persian Empire it
corresponded to the Greek Obol. It was
also popularl.y api)lied to Charon's Obol
iq.v.) according to Suidas and other ancient
authoi'S. The word persisted until
the Middle Ages as the Arabic daneq, the
Persian dungh and the neo-Sanscrit lanka.
Danaretto. See Denaretto.
Danaro. The Italian equivalent of the
Denier, which can be traced in Beneventum
to the reign of Grimaldo (793-806)
and was current in nearly all the Italian
states, provinces, and cities.
It is frequentl.y written Denaro, and a
smaller coin which was issued by the Doges
of Venice from circa 1170 to 1250 is called
the Danaretto, or Denaretto.
There are also multiples, and under
Antonio I (1701-1731) and Onorato III
(1731-1793) of Monaco, pieces of eight
Danari in copper wei-e struck.
Dandiprat, also but rarely written Dand.
vjirat. The colloquial name for a small
silver coin which was current in England
at the beg'iiniing of the si.xteenth eenturv.
It was probal)lv the half Groat of Ilenrv
VII (1485-1509).
C!amden, in his Remaines, 1605 (188),
refers to it thus: "K. Henry the 7th
stamped a small coine called dand.yprats.
Danegelt. An annual tax formerl.v laid
on the English nation for maintaining
forces to oppose the Danes, or to furnish
tribute to procure peace. It was at first
one shilling, afterward two, and at last
seven, for every hide of laud except such
as belonged to the church.
x\t a subsequent period, when the Danes
became masters, the Danegelt was a tax
Daneq Decaen Piastre
levied by the naiiish princes on every
liide of land owiieil by the Anglo-Saxons.
Daneq. See Danake.
Dsuigh. A small Persian silver coin current
ill tiie seventeenth eeutury. The
I)aii<:h was j)rimarily a weight, hence its
e(|iiivalents, in silver, came to represent
the fractions of the coin. See Larin and
Danielsthaler. The name given to a
Thaler struck in 1561 by the Princess Maria
of the House of -lever. It has on the reverse
a figure of the prophet Daniel sui'-
rounded by four lions. See Madai (1734).
Dfuiik. The si.xth of the Dinar and of
the Dirhem: therefore of variable weight
in reference to one or the other, and in
respect of the varying weights of either.
As one .sixth of a dinar, it is equal to 12, or
to 10, or to 8 habbehs, according to the
number of habbehs to the dinar. Hence
we find the following relations recorded
= 2 kirats (of silver, i.e., 2'/3, as there
are 14 kirats or 6 daniks to the dirhem) ;
or = 3'/3 kirats {i.e., in relation to the
dinar of 20 kirats) or = 10 hai)behs or
40 aruzzchs, i.e., in reference to the dinar
of 60 habbehs; or = 12 grains, i.e., in refcreuce
to the dinar of 72 habbehs. Five
daniks of gold = 11 "/i.^ dirhems at Bagdad,
whei'e the dinar was worth 14'/4. The
daiiik was the ((uai'tor of a dirhem in
Khwarizm, afterward 41/;.
Danim. See Mahmudi.
Darb. A silver coin of India and e(|uivalent
to the half Kupee. See Sihansah.
Darby. An obsolete English slang word
meaning "ready monev. " Ilickeringill,
in his Work.^, 1682 (ii.'20), says, "down
with the dust and ready Darby," and
Shadwell, in his ]>lay The Squire of Alsatia,
1688 (i. 1), uses the expression, "the
ready, the Darby."
Dardenne. A copiuT coin of France?
struck in 1711 aiul 1712 for Provence. Its
value was six Deniers. indicated by six
crowned figures L placed opposite the sides
of an e(|uilateral triangle with tlie figure
& in the centre.
Daric. A Persian gold coin which is
supposed to have obtained its name fro7n
the figure on the obverse of the Persian
King Darius. They appear to have been
origirudly is.sued by Darius 1, the son of
Ilystaspes (B.(;. .52"l-48r)). See Herodotus,
Ilistorid (iv. 166). The King is geru-rally
represented ;is a kneeling bowman, and conse(|
uently these coins are sometimes referred
to as Archers (q.v.). The reverse
bears an incuse punch-mark.
These coins are the Aapity.oi of the
Greeks, and in those parts of the Scriptures
written after the Babylonish captivity, they
are called Adarkoiiini. Ezra (viii. 26, 27),
/ Chron. (xxix. 7), and by the Talmudists,
Darkonoth ; Nehemiah (vii. 70-72). Conf.
Hill, Historical Greek Coins (p. 27).
Darkonoth. Tlie Talmudic luune for
the Daric (q.v.).
Dasa. A silver coin of India and eipial
to one tenth of a Ruiiee. Sec Sihan.sah.
Dauphin. A billon coin of France which
receives its name on account of being specially
sti'uck for Dauphiny. The Petit
Dauphin was issued by Charles V (1364-
1380), and the (irand l)au|)iiin bv Charles
VI 1 (1422-1461).
Davidsthaler. The name given to a silver
coin of David, Count of Mansfeld, issued
fnmi about 1605 to 1628.
Davidstuiver. The luune given to tlie
doulile (iros of I'trecht issued in 1477 by
David de Boiirgogne, Bisho]) of Utrecht.
See Frey (No. 182).
A gold Florin i.ssued by the same ruler
with a figure of David and his harp, is
c(mimonly known as the Davidsharj), or
Harpe d'or.
Debased Coin is money that is lowered
in cliaractcr or quality. Macaulay, in his
Ilistori/ of Enijhind (v. 3), uses the term
"a debased currency." Sec Embasc and
Decachalk. This multiple, 10 Chalkoi.
seems to jiave been coined only under the
Ptiili'iiia'i'c sovereigns of Egypt.
Decadrachm, or Dekadrachmon, represented
the multiple of ten Drarlims {q.v.).
Next to the Dodecadrachm it is the largest
of all the silver coins struck by the Greeks,
and was issued principally in the Sicilian
Decaen Piastre. A silver coin of the
value of ten Livres, i.s.sued in the Isle of
France in 1810. The coins were struck
from metal captured in the ship Oviedor,
and obtained their name from Decaen, the captain general. For a detailed account,
see Spink (ix. 4-415), and Zaj' (p. 265).
Decalitron. The Corinthian Stater, we
know from Pollux, was so called in Sicily
because it equalled exactly 10 litrae of the
native standard. Coins of this standard
bearing Corinthian types were frequently
struck in Sicily.
Decanummion. See Nummus and Follis.
Decargyrus. A Roman silver coin first
issued by Honorius, and of one half the
value of the Siliqua. See Babelon, Traite
(i. 581).
Decenario. The name given to a variety
of mezzo Grosso struck by the Counts
of Tyrol at Merano. Its value was ten
Piccoli. See Rivista Italiana di Numismatica
(xx. 430).
Decime. A copper coin of the first
French Revolution, issued in 1794, from
dies by Charles Wielandy, a medallist and
engraver of Geneva.
When the Franc system was introduced
in 1803, the Decime was made the one
tenth of the Franc, a position which it
nominalh' still holds, though no longer
The Decime was issued in 1838 for Monaco,
and in 1840 for France, as a pattern
for a proposed new copper coinage. Mailliet
(cii. ciii. 3-6) cites Decimes struck in
1814 and 1815 for Strasburg when blockaded
by the allies. A cast Decime was
issued for Santo Domingo in 1801. It is
of very rude workmanship and bears the
reverse inscription in three lines : UN
DECIME LAN 8, all of the letters N on both
sides being reversed.
Decimo. A silver coin of the Central
American States of the value of ten Centavos,
or the tenth part of a Peso.
For Buenos Aires there was struck in
1822 and later a copper Decimo equal to
the tenth part of the copper Real of the
same city ; the Real, in fact, is .stamped
Declaration Type. See Oxford Unite.
Decobol. Mentioned in inscriptions (C.
I. G. Attic t. II, No. 387) was never struck,
being solely a money of account.
Deconcion, or Aexw-cv.iov, or Deunx (q.v.)
was ten twelfths of the litra (or As of
twelve ounces). Bronze coiiis of this de-
nomination were struck at Centuripae in
Decunx. One of the divisions of the
As, of the weight of ten ounces. It is
sometimes called the Dextans. See Aes
Decus. A nickname for the silver
Crown of James II of England, the first
issues of which had an edge inscription
reading decvs et tvtamen, i.e., "an ornament
and a safeguard."
Thomas Shadwell, in his play. The
Squire of Alsatin, 1688, has the phrase,
"To equip you with some Meggs, Smelts,
Decus 's and Georges;" Sir Walter Scott
mentions the term in his novel The Fortunes
of Nigel (xxiii.) thus: "noble Master
Grahame . . . has got the decuses and
the smelts. '
' See Megg.
Decussis. A multiple of the Roman As
after the first reduction. It bears on the
obverse the iiead of Minerva or Roma and
on the reverse the prow of a galley and
the mark X, i.e., ten Asses.
De Gortz Daler, or Notdaler. The
name given to a series of eleven copper
coins struck in Sweden from 1715 to 1719,
which are so called from Baron George
Henry de Gortz, a nobleman who obtained
the sanction of Charles XII to issue them.
They were intended to pass for four times
the value which they would have possessed
if composed of an equal weight of fine
The death of the King in 1718, and the
execution of de Gortz in the following
year, put an end to the exaggerated valuation
of these coins, and they were reduced
to something like their actual worth, that
is, about two Pfennige.
Dehliwala. A base silver coin of the
Patlian Sultans of Hindustan. They were
imitated and adopted, with altered legends,
bv Altamsh, and liis feudatories, until
about A.H. 630 (A.D. 1232). See Thomas
(p. 14).
Dekadrachmon. See Decadrachra.
Dekanummion. A name given to the
<|uart('r Follis, consisting of ten Nummi.
See Foil is.
Demand Notes. The name given to a
variety of paper money issued by the
United States in 1861, of values from five
dollars to twenty dollars. See Greenbacks.
Demareteion Denarius Oscensis
Demareteion, or Damareteion. The
iiiiiiic liiviMi t(i a vaiii'ly of 1 Jccadraclmi
struck at S\ raciisc ciri'n !>.('. 4S(). They
wew issued in cclcliratidii of tiic victory of
(Jcloii ovci- tiic Cartlia^riniaiis at Iliiucni
and were iiiimed from Doiiiarete, the wife
of Goh)ii.
These coins were eacJi worth ten Attic
Draclims; the Sicilians called ihem Penteeoiitalitra
on account of tiieii- wei<z:ht.
Coiif. Hill. Coiiix ijf Axriciit Sicili) {p.
;")(; )
Demy. A Scotch jiold coin issued by
James I. It has on the obverse the arms
of Scotland in a lozeiifre shape, and on
the reverse a St. Andrew's cross in ti'essui-e.
Its wei^'ht was usually fi'oni fifty to
fifty-three ^n-ains and the half in ])roi)ortion.
Dana. A silver coin of Tiiscany of the
value of ten Lira struck by the Queen
JIaria Louisa imrsuant to an ordinance of
July 21. ISO.i.
Denar. The German ei|uivalent of both
the l>eiiarius and Denier.
Denaretto. A name jriven to such varieties
of the Denaro as are of small fabric.
They are conniion tf) the Venetian series
fi'om the twelfth to the fonrteenth century.
Sir Danai'o.
Denarii Augmentabiles. .SVe Okeli)enu\\\<
Denarii Corvorum, or Rabenpfennige,
was the name <riven to small silver coins
struck at Freiburp: in Hi'eisj;au in the
fourteenth century, on account of the head
of a raven on the obverse, which was
copied from the arms of the city. Rabeu
was later corrupted into Rappen (q.v.).
Denarino. A base silver coin of Modena
issued duriufr the sixteenth century.
It was c(|ual to the half Soldo.
Denarius. A Roman silver coin first
issued 15.C. 1268 with the Quinarius and
Sestertius as its divisions. At that time
the Aes Libralis had been reduced to two
ounces in \vei<rlit and the Denarius was
ecpiivalent to ten of them.
The ori<rinal type beai's on the obverse
the liead of Minerva and the numeral X,
and on the reverse the Dioscuri on horseback
and the legend in the exerfjue.
There is a tradition that the Romans won
the battle of Lake Regilius, rirra B.C. 490.
by the aid of Castor and Pollux who appeared
on the battlefield as youths riding
white horses. These early ty])es of Denarii
are conse(piently also known a.s Ca.storiati.
In B.C. 217 the value of the Deiuirius
was changed to sixteen Asses, and the
lunneral XVI substituted, the latter being
generally abbi'cviated by the sign *.
The Denarius, in A.D. 2!)(i, was succeeded
by the Centenionalis as a silver
coin, and the name Denarius was applied
to a copper coin, commonly known as the
"third bronze." 8rc Follis.
The gold Denarius, of the .same weight
as the silver one and of the value of ten,
was the same as the half Aureus or Quinarius.
It occurs both in the Honuin Consular
and Imperial series.
The following table shows how extensively
the silver Denarii were debased, and
their corresponding values:
,, , . , ,
<'OI)IirT alloj-
Under .Augustus the ncimriiis was mif
piKlit.v-fourth of a ikiiiucI, <ij|i|iri- Cd
grain,s -
I'niler Nero the Deuariua was one Dine
tieth of a pounil. copper ."i.') grains r, |,i iii
I'niler Trajan tiie Pi^nariiis was one
ninet.v-ninth of :i iiounil, copper .'jl
„ *;'=>""* in to 18
Uuiler Hacirian (lie Denarius was one
ninet.v ninth of a pounil, copper .Tl
grains js ,„ o,,
Under M. .\ureli\is lln> Di'narius was one
ninet.v-nlntli of a ponml. copper .".1
srain*' 20 to 25
Under Comiuodus the Denarius was one
one hundred and a third of a pound.
copjier -Irt grains o.'i to 30
Unilcr Sept. Severus tlie Denarius was oni'
one hundred and a tifth id' a pound,
copper 4S grains ;{() („ r,-,
Denarius Aereus. From the time of
Gallienus the Denai-ius became so debased
that it was little more than copper and
was henceforth called D. Aereus h^ojiiscus
Aurelian, 9).
Denarius Albus. S(c Albus.
Denarius Communis. iSVf Follis.
Denarius Dentatus. See Serrated Coins.
Denarius Novus Argenteus. This insci-
iptioii occurs on a large silver coin
stnu'k for Riga in ir)74. It had a value
of eighteen Ferding.
Denarius Oscensis. A coin of the weight
of a Roman Denarius but bearing as t.vpes:
obverse, a youthful or bearded male head;, a horseman, was issued in the
second and first centuries B.C. from various mints in Spain to facilitate pxclian<;e
between the local population and the Romans.
This coin is spoken of as Argcntum
Oscense and Oscenses by Livy (xxxiv, 10;
46; xl, 43). The name is derived from the
city of Osca (the modern Hnesca) in Tarraconensis
which was the capital of Sertorius
and, owing to the proximity of large
silver mines, was the principal place of
issue of this coinage.
Denaro Mancuso. See Mancoso.
Denaro Provisino. See Provisino.
Denga. Also called Tenga and Denuschka.
A Russian word meaning money
in general. The term was first applied to
silver coins struck by the Dukes of Moskow
and Kiev, as early as the second half
of the fourteenth century, and subsecpiently
by the free cities of Novgorod and
Pskof. The Dengi were intended for circulation
among the Tartars, and the style
and denomination of the Tartar money
was naturally adojited. Their form is generally
oblong and irregular, but nearly
circular specimens have been found. In
numerous instances they bear a portrait
of the ruler or the same personage on horseback.
They wei-e divided into half Denga
pieces and Poluschkas (q.v.).
The later issues are of billon and copper
and the value of the Denga degenerated
to that of half a Kopeck. These were issued
as late as the iirst half of the eighteenth
century. A copper Para or three
Dengi piece was struck by Catherine I'l
of Russia in 1771 and 1772 for circulation
ill JMoldavia and Wallachia.
Denier. A silver and billon coin, corresponding
to the Penny, and current
throughout Western Europe from the
time of the Merovingian Dynasty.
The name is derived from the Denarius,
which it resembled in size and fabric; and
the Daiiaro, Dinero, Dinar, and Dinheiro,
are modifications of tlie same coin, emjiloyed
according to the country or territory
where this type was in circulation.
Its value fluctuated ; under Charlemagne's
reforms of the monetary system
240 Deniers were ordered to be struck from
one pound of fine silver, and the Denier
was valued at one twelfth of the Solidus.
When the Gros Tournois and later the
Gros Parisis appeared, the same ratio of
twelve to one was retained for the Denier,
and it was styled Denier Tournois or
Denier Parisis according to the place of
mintage. In the reign of Louis XVI the
base silver Denier was worth only one
eighth or one tenth as much as the fine
silver one of Charlemagne.
Last of all the Denier was struck in copper
and its value diminished still more.
Frederick the Great issued it in this metal
for Upper Silesia in 1746; the copper
Denier of France was equal to four Liards,
or the twelfth part of the Sol or Sou.
Denier a la Reine. »SV(^ Reiue.
Denier Bourdelois. A variety of the
Denier struck by Louis XI of France and
retained by his successors Charles VIII
and Francis I. All the early types appear
to have a small shell as a mint-mark.
Denier d'Or. A gold coin of Western
Elnrope which appeared about the time of
the Carlovingian Dynasty. It was extensively
issued at Melle and occurs in the
Anglo-Gallic series, where it corresponds
to tlu' Salute and was valued at 25 Sols.
Denier d'Or. Another name for the
Mouton (q.v.) and generally applied to
sticli types as were struck by the Comits
of Bar and throughout Flanders. Louis
of Malle, Count of Flanders, by a commission
dated April 13, 1357, ordered his
moneyer, Andi'ieu du Porche, to strike
Deniers d'or an Mouton for the Seignory
of Rethel, with the inscriptidu Ludovicus
Comes Regitesteiisis.
Denier Faible. iS'ee Lausaiuiais.
Denier Noir. Sec Black Farthing and
Zwartc Penning.
Denier Palatin. The name given to a
silver coin of the (Jarolingian series issued
by Louis I (816-840) with the inscription
PALATiNA MONETA. Coiif. also JMoncta Pal- -
atina, infra.
Denier Parisis. A billon coin belonging
to the Anglo-Gallic series, and struck by
Henry VI pursuant to an ordinance of
May 31, 1424.
Deniers pour ^pouser. See Ai'rhes.
Denkmiinze. A commemorative coin or
ui('<lal. .S'rr Jubileums Thaler.
Denuschka. See Denga.
Desjat Deneg. The name given to the
Russian base silver coin of five Kopecks,
fi4 ]
Deuce Didrachm
which was first struck at tlic hcfrinniufr of
the eiglitcciith century under Peter 1.
Deuce, also written Duce. An Englisli
dialect term for two pence. See Mayhew,
London Labour and London Poor, 1851
(i. 256).
Deunx, or labus. A division of the As
and e(|ual to eleven ounces. Sec Aes Grave
and Deconcia.
Deventergans. A nickname given to
the (li-osso issued in Deventer by Frederick
von Blankenheini, Hishoi) of Uti'echt (1:5!):!-
1423). This coin liore a jioorly executed
fi<rure of an eagle which was mistaken for
a goose.
Device. This term is used by iiumisnuitists
to describe the emblem or armorial
design on a coin in conjunction with a
national motto. Thus the United States
uses a figure of Liberty and tiie words "In
God we trust." Great Britain has "Dieu
et mon droit,'' etc.
Devil's Bit. An English dialect term
current in Lincolnshire and meaning a
threepenny piece.
It is so called because jiroud i>eo])le
will not give copper at collections in
church, and therefore provide themselves
with the smallest silver coin.
Dextans. Str Decun.x.
Dhabbu, or Dhabu. A copper coin formerly
current in the Deccan iirincipality :
it was valued at two of the Alamgiri Pice
or one thirty-second of a Chandor Rupee.
See Kori and Pice.
Dharana. A silver coin of ancient India,
the same as the Purana (q.v.).
The name is from dhri, "to hold," and
probably means, according to Cunningham,
"a handful of sixteen copper Panas.
See Pana.
Dhebua. A rough \uistam|)od lump of
copper used in the currency system of
Nepal. It was computed at four Dams.
See Snka.
Dhingalo, or Dhinglo. A copper coin
of C'utch iuid Katliiawar, of the value of
one si.xtcenth of a Kori (q.v.). Codrington
states that "nhingo" is a Cufch term
meaning "fat," and "lo" is a masculine
suffix, and he adds, "so Dingalo means
something fat, hence the fattest coin.
TlKHigh at present it is used for a pice
and a half, I think it was originally three
|)ice or tamliios.
Diamante. A silver coin of Ferrara,
corresponding to tlie Grosso, first struck
by Horso (14.')()-1471 ) and imitated by
several of his successors. It receives its
name from a figure resembling a diamond
on the obverse. A smaller coin of similar
type is known as tlie Dianumtino.
Dibs, or Dibbs. A slang term for money
and possibly a corruption of "tips," i.e.,
gifts for service rendered. Horace and
.lames Smitli in tlicir Rrjrrird Addresses,
liS12, (leortje lUirnwell use the phrase
"make nunk\' surrender his dibs," aiul
Smyth, in The Sailor's Word-book, 1867,
has, "Dibbs, a galley term for ready
Dicciottino, or Diciottino. This woi'd
means eighteen and it was used in Parma,
Milan, etc., during the fifteentii century
to indicate the pieces of 18 Danari struck
ill Savoy.
Dichalkon. A Greek co])|)er coin of the
value of double the Chalcus or one fourth
of the Obol (<i.r.).
Dicken, Dickpfennige. A iiojiular name
to distiuguisii coins of thick fabric, and
usually applied to the silver i.ssues of
Switzerland of the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries. Tiiese i)ieee.s were patterned
after the Italian Testones but did not have
the light weight. The Dicken of Berne,
dated 1492 (Frey, No. 369), is a good example.
Dick Thaler, Dick Groschen. A name,
like Dicken, employed to designate the
tliick characteristics of a coin, to distinguish
it from the broad type. See Breite
(Jroschen, and Gros.
The term Dick Groschen, or Numnii
Grossi, was originally applieil in the fourteenth
century in France, Bohemia, Germany,
etc., to coins of the Gros Tournois
variety but struck on much thicker planehets.
The Dick Thaler of Tyrol, dated 1484
(Frey No. 260), is one of the earliest of
these, and its small and thick fabric was
imitated in a inimber of the (iermaii
states, as well as in Denmark.
Didrachm, or Didrachmon. A Greek silver
coin of the value of two Drachms
(q.v.). It was copied from the silver Stater of the Persians, and is consequently
frequently referred to by this name,
though as a monetary unit it was soon replaced
by the Drachm. Tlie Didrachm
was extensively struck in Corinth and its
colonies (see Stater, Poloi) and also in the
cities of Sicily and lower Italy.
Die. The stamp used in coining. An
early reference to it Ls found in M. Smith's
Memoirs of the Secret Service, 1699 (App.
19), viz., "to bring or send to him some
Deys ... to coin some mill'd Money."
Digenois. See Divionensis.
DikoUybon. A Greek copper coin of
the value of half of the Chaleus (q.v.).
Coiif. Collybos (supra).
Dilitron. Silver coins of two Litra in
value were struck at Rhegium in Italy.
See Ijitra.
Dime. A silver coin of the United
States, the tenth part of a Dollar. This
coin, and its corresponding half, were authorized
by Act of Congress, April 2, 1792.
The half Dime was first coined in 1794
and discontinued in 1873. The Dime was
struck in 1796 and is still coined. See
The name is probably derived from the
French, clixieme.
Dinar. A Muhammadan gold coin, first
issued in the latter part of the seventh
century. The name is derived from the
Roman Denarius. The weight of the early
Dinars was about sixty-six grains, but at
later periods the same term was used for
gold coins of greater or less weight and
The quality of the metal was almost always
fine gold, the chief exceptions being
the coins struck in Turkey and Morocco,
some of which contain a lai'ge amount of
Dinar. A money of account used in
niodrrn Persia, and computed as follows:
liMio ninnr -- 1 Kniii silvfi-
KM) DiiKU- = 1 Sciiiir silver
r,i) Diniii- = 1 Shiihi i'iiimut
-."i IMiiar = 1 I'lil ((ippcT
Dinar. A silvei- coin of Servia adopted
in 1S67 when that country followed the
liatin Union in its monetai'v system. It
is of the same value as the Franc, Ijira, etc.,
and is subdivided into one hundred Paras.
Tliei'e are pieces of ten and twenty Dinara
in gold.
Dinders, also written Dynders. Phillips,
in his History of Shrewshury (pp.
199, 200), in referring to Wroxeter, has
the following note: "The Roman coins
found here are a proof of the antiquity of
the place; the inhabitants call them dinders,
a corruption of the Roman denarius."
Dinerillo, or Dineruelo. A small copper
coin struck by Philip III and Philip
IV of Spain during the seventeenth century
for Valencia and Barcelona. The
name is a diminutive of Dinero.
Dinero. The Spanish equivalent of the
Denier. It appears to have been introduced
about the reign of Fernando III of
Castile (1280-1252), and is mentioned as
late as the French occupation of Navarre
under Henri II d' Albret (1516-1551).
The half is called Malla.
Dinero. A silver coin of Peru of the
value of one half the Peseta or ten Centavos.
Dinga. A Burmese word signifying a
coin. It is probably a corruption of Tanga
(q.v.). See also the Indian Antiquary
(xxvi. 235-245).
Dinheiro. The Portuguese equivalent of
the Denier. The coinage of these pieces
begins under Alfonso I (1128-1185) and
extends to the latter ]iart of the fourteenth
century. See Caixa.
Dinomos. The ancient name for the silver
piece of the value of two Nomoi struck
at times in South Italy, notably at Thurium
and Metapontum. See Mommsen-
Blacas, Mommies Roiiiaines (i. 155). They
are known to modern numismatists as Tetradrachms
or Distaters.
Diobolon. A ]iiece of two Oboli. See
Dirhem. A Muhammadan silver coin,
first issued Iti the latter part of the seventh
century. The name is a modification of
the Greek Drachma. The weight of the
Dirhem origiimlly was forty-six grains,
but both the weight and size have undergone
many variations.
Originally the Dirhem was one tenth of
the Dinar, but this relation was not kept
The legal Dirhem is a money of account;
the actual Dirhem of currency varied
greatly in weight, r.r/., in 710 the Egyptian
Dirhem weighed 64 Habbehs, at other
Disk Dobler
times 48. The divisions of tlie nirlicm aro
into 6 I)anii\s, oi- 14 Kirats, or 70 Harloycoriis.
Disk. An Enjilisli dialect term for a
half Crown.
Roswcll, Pocficol Wurks. 1811, has the
"I ask but half-a-cr»wn a line
The s<ing be .vnur's, the disk Iti' mine."
Disme. A pattern or experimental coin
of the United States issued in 1792, with
a eoi'rcspoiidinf,' half. See Dime.
Di-Stater. The doulile of the jrold Stater
iq.v.). It oceurs in the coins struck by
Alexander the Great. This name also
desifrnated a silver coin e(nuil to two silver
Ditto Bolo. An obsolete copper coin of
the Ionian Islands. The name is jii'obably
a coi'rnption of di ulxili.
Divini, or Diwani. The Abys.sinian
name and equivalent of the Para. See
Fonrohert (Nos. 4989-5003) enumerates
silver coins of San 'a, in Arabia, called
Diwani, forty of which were eipial to one
Divionensis, Digenois, or Dijonnois.
The name usually ap])lied to the money
struck at Dijon, the capital of the ancient
Duchy of Burgundy. Silver issues date
from the eleventh centurv. See Blanchet
(i. :i9r,) and Poey d'Avant (iii. 192).
Dixain. A French billon coin which, as
its name indicates, was the tenth iKii't of
the silver Franc and later of the Ecu.
In the reign of Louis XII (1498-151.5)
were i.ssued the Dixain a Couronne and
the Dixain du Dauphine, both of a similar
type to the Douzain (q.v.). Under Fi-ancis
I (1515-1547) it received the name
Franciseus, probably from the large letter
F with the ei-own above, which is a prominent
In 1791 an e.ssay was struck in bellmetal
of a coin to equal one tenth of the
Livre, and the prototype of the Decime
(q.v.). It bears on one side the date in
a wreath and on the reverse the word
Dix.^iN surrounded by the inscription
Djampel, or Jampal. A silver coin of
the Malay Peninsula of the value of one
half the Real. See Pitje. The name is
also given to the Krishnala (q.v.).
Do-am. In the system this is
half of the Suka (q.v.).
Dobla. A gold coin of Spain, introduccii
about the time of Peter I (1350-
l.'i()8) and struck at Seville, Toledo, etc.
The original type bore on one side a threeturreted
castle, i)ut this was followed by
the [)ortrait vai'iety undei- Ferdinand and
Isabella (1474-151()). The earlier varietyis
fre<|uently known as the Dobla Castellaiui
and the other as the Dobla a la
The value of the Dobla, also called Dob-
Ion, was two Escudos or one eighth of
the Onza. There were multiples, called
Doblon de a Cuatro and Doblon de a Oclio,
the latter was of course the same as the
Onza; it was struck ])rincipally for Mexico
and (tther Spanish colonies, and is commonly
known as the Doubloon.
Another variety, the Did)lone, was issued
by Charles V during the Spanish
occupation of the Low Countries.
By a royal decree of 1849 the metric
system was introduced in Spain, and the
money of account W'as made as follows
One Doblon de Isabel was e(|ual to ten
F]sciulos, or one hundred Reales, or five
gold Piastres.
In the Italian coinage the term Dobla
is generally applied to the double Dueato
di Oro, such as was struck by the Emperor
Charles V for Naples and Sicily, etc. See
Chalmers (p. 395).
Dobla de la Banda. A gold coin of
Castile struck by Juan 1 (1379-1390). It
receives its name from the band ci-ossing
the shield, which was a feature of the
Ordre de la Vanda (Band), an Order of
Knighthood instituted by Alfonso XI.
('(nif. De La Torre (No. 6427).
Dobla de los Excelentes. See Aguila
de Oro.
Doblado. Another name for thi> Dobla,
but usually applied to the gold coin of
two Esi-udos struck in Ecuador in 1835
and later. Sec Fonrobert (8298).
Doblengo, or Duplo. A denomination
struck iiy P>crengei' Ramon IV, Count of
Bai-celona ( 1131-1 1()2), and later adopted
l)y the Kings of Aragon. It probably rejiresented
a piece of two Deniers in value.
Dobler. A luime given to the billon
double (iros of the Island of Majorca. It was issued as early as the thirteenth century
and continued in use until the time
of "Philip V (1700-1746). The general
type has on one side a crowned bust l)etweeu
two roses, and on tlie reverse a cross
or armorial shield. The later issues were
struck in copper and reduced to the value
of two Dineros.
Doblon. A Mexican gold coin, the Onza
of eiglit Escudos. See Dobla.
The name is still employed in Chile and
Uruguay for tlie piece of ten Pesos.
Doblone. The name given to a gold
coin struck in Bologna in 1529 by the
Dominicans at the time of a famine; its
value was four Scudi d' Oro. The Papal
mint at Rome used the same name for the
Doppia da due, also valued at four Scudi
d'Oro, which was issued as early as the
reign of liuiocent X (1644-1655).
In Modena the Doblone was a gold coin
of the value of eight Scudi struck by
Francis I (162!)-1637).
Doblon Sencillo. This was not an actual
coin but a money of account in the
old Spanish system representing a value
of sixty Reales.
Dobra. A gold coin of Portugal which
was first issued in the reign of Pedro I
(1357-1367) and equal to 82 Soldi.
At the beginning of the reign of John
V (1706-1750) appeared the Dobra de
oito Escudos, and the Dobra de quatro
Escudos, valued respectively at eight and
four Escudos, or 12,800 aiul 6400 Reis.
The former coin was commonly known as
the Joannes, and in the Britisli West Indies,
wliere they circulated extensively, this
was abbreviated into Joe, the latter coin
being called the half Joe. The striking of
these coins ceased by virtue of a Portuguese
proclamation of November 29, 1732.
They gradually disajijieared from circidation,
and in time tlic lialf Dobras were im-
|)roperly alluded to in some places as Joes
instead of half Joes.
It should be added that in 1731 a Dobra
of twenty-four and another of sixteen Escudos
were struck. These large gold coins
are illustrated by Aragao (pi. xli. 23, 24)
and described by Meili.
In 1750, the Dol)ra, now rcdiiced to four
Escudos, or 6400 Rois. received the name
of Peca, and this designation continued
until its abolition early in the nineteenth
Dobra Gentil, also known as Gentil, a
Portuguese gold coin issued in the reign
of Fernando I (1367-1383). Like the
Chaise d"Or it represents the King seated
on a throne under a canopy, and on the
reverse a cross formed of five shields within
an outer circle composed of eight
Doddane. Lewis Rice, in the Mysore
Gazetteer, 1877 (p. 8), states that a silver
coin of tliis name and of the value of two
Annas was in circulation in the abovementioned
Dodecadrachm. A Greek silver coin of
the value of twelve Drachms {q.v.). See
Dodicesimo. The name given to the
one twelfth of the Apuliense (q.v.).
Dodkin. A diminutive of Doit {q.v.),
and usually applied to inferior coins
brought into England by foreign traders.
Dodrans. One of the divisions of the
As, of the weight of nine ounces.
The reverse of this very rare coin bears
an S, as in the Semis, and three bosses in
addition. See Aes Grave.
Dblpelthaler. A name used in Adam
Berg's Miiinbuch. 1597, to describe the
issues of Philip II of Spain for Burgundy
and the Spanish Netherlands. Tlie word
means "clumsy" and the nickname is applied
on account of their coarse and thick
Doewi. The Malay equivalent of the
word Duit. It occurs on the copper coin
of Celebes dated A.H. 1250, i.e., 1834- '35.
Dog. See Black Dogs.
Dog Dollar, or Lion Dollar. The
Leeuwendaalder of the United Provinces
{q. v.).
Dog Dollars. In an act of the Assembly
of West Jersey, dated October 3-18,
1693, it is stated tliat "Dog Dollars not
dipt," are worth six Shillings each, being
of the same value as Mexican "pieces of
eight" of twelve pennyweight.
The Assembly of the Province of Maryland
in 1708 passed a law fixing the rates
of exchange, and this act mentions Dog
Dollars as being tlie mone.y which was
most plentiful in the Province, and with
68 ]
Dogganey Doppia
wliieh tlie iiilialiitaiits wore hest aef|
iiaiiite(l ; upon tlu'in tlic value of four
sliilliiifjs and sixpt'iice was jjlaccd. In the
laws of Pennsylvania, these coins are fre-
((uently mentioned as the Lion or Do-;:
Dollars, and are rated in 1728 at five Shillings.
Dogganey. Sre Dug^ani.
Doit, or Doyt. The Englisli equivalent
for the Duit (q.v.). The name is evidently
a corruption of the French d'huit,
an eighth, this being their value as compared
to the Stuiver.
Doits were current in Scotland during
the reign of the Stuarts, but their importation
was iirohibited in 1685. See
Ruding (ii. 22).
Dokani. Her Nasfi.
Dokdo, or Dokro. A copper coin of
Cuteli and Kathiawar, of the value of one
twenty-fourth of a Kori (q.r.). Codrington
states that it is from the Prakrit l)ukkado,
or the Sanscrit Dvikrita, meaning
"twice done," i.e., twice a Tambio. He
adds that "though now used to mean one
pice, it must originally have been two
Dolche, i.e., daggers. A name given to
the ducal Groschen of Lorraine struck
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The obverse of these coins bore the
figure of an arm holding a short sword
which was easily mistaken for a dagger
or poniard.
Dollar. The derivation is generally supposed
to come from the (Jei-man word
Thaler {q.v.), and this in its turn takes
its name from the silver coins struck about
152') in the mining region of Joachimsthal
in Bohemia.
It is the unit of value of the United
States and is worth ten dimes or one hundred
cents. The silver dollar was authorized
to be coined by an Act of Congress
dated April 2, 1792, and the first coins
were issued in 1794. They were originally
of 416 grains; reduced in 1887 to 412.5
grains. The coinage of the silver dollar
ceased in 1904.
The gold dollar was authorized by an
Act of March 8, 1849, and abolished in
1890. It is of the weigiit of 25.8 grains,
and was designed by James B. Longacre,
the chief engraver of the mint.
JIan\- of the British Colonies now use
a silver dollar, called the British Dollar,
and based on a metric system. This |)iece
was authorizeil in 1895 and first struck for
circulation in 1896, being intended principally
for Hong Kong and the Straits
Settlements. It was originally 416 grains
fine. The Bank of England dollar of the
value of five shillings, and the Bank of
Ireland dollar of the value of six shillings
were botii issued in 1804.
Dollar. A silver coin struck by C'harles
II for Scotland from 1676 to 1682, and
constituting his second coinage. It is of
the weigiit of 429 grains, the same as the
Four Merk ])iece of the jireceding issue.
There are divisions to one sixteenth of a
Donario, oi' Donativ. This, as tiie name
indicates, is a coin or medal issued to commemorate
some event and not sold, but
distributed on an anniversary. One of
Carl CJustav of Sweden striu-k f«r Riga
prior to his accession in 1645, reads: ex
Pietro Virgilio on his accession to the
Bishopric (jf Ti-ent in 1776 coined the
Donario in both gold and silver foi- presentation
Donativ. Hee Donario.
Dong. AnotJHM- name for the Sapeque
(<[.i'.). A piece of 100 Dong of the Em-
])eror Hien-Tong of Annam (1740-1785)
is desci'ibed by Lavoix (x.w. 889). Dong
and Dong-thien is the Annamcse equivalent
for tiie Chinese Cash.
Doppel in <!erman, and Do])])io in Italian,
means (loul)h\ and is generally used
in conjunction wilii Tiialer, Grosso, etc.
Doppia, from doppio, double, is the
name of a former gold coin of a number
of the Italian States, and the double of
some recognized unit.
It appears in Milan in the fifteenth century
under the Sforza dynasty as a piece
of two Zecchini, and it bore the same value
in Malta.
As a coin of two Scudi it occurs in the
coinage of Genoa, Venice, Mantua, the
Papal .series both at Rome and Bologna,
The name is variously written as Doppione
aud Doppietta, the latter form usually
for Sardinia.
Doppia da Due. See Quadrupla.
Doppietta and Doppione. See Doppia.
Doppler, like Doppia, is a general term
used to express tlie double of any recognized
standard, e.g., pieces of two Kreuzer,
two Thaler, etc.
Dorea, or Durih. A money of account
of ISomliay, etc., eomjiuted at six Reis.
See Mohur.
Dos. A Siamese gold coin of the value
of ten Tieals issued pursuant to an order of
King Chulalongkorn, dated November 11,
1908. Tlie reverse lias the figure of Gamda,
with a shield bearing the "Chakra"
and trident. Legend, one dos siama rath
(in Siamese), and the date of mintage.
Do Sen. The name given by the Japanese
t(i tlieir coins with central holes that
were issu(>d fi'om A.D. 70S to 1868, wlien
the modern coinage began.
Double. The abbreviated name for the
French i)iece of two Deniers. In tlie
Anglo-Gallic series the same term was applied
to the double Gros, and in the Irish
series under Edward IV to the double
Groat, which was current for eight pence.
See Ruding (i. 284).
The earliest varieties of this coin bear
the inscription moneta dvplex and they
are found in Brabant under Jean III
Double. A copper coin of the Island
of Guernsey, introduced in 1830, and of
the value "of one eighth of the English
penny. There are multiples of four and
eight' Doubles. Bronze replaced the copper
in 1861.
Double Key. A corruption of Dubbclt.
je (f/.c). Ciialmers (p. 382) mentions
Doulilc Keys, (ir Kupangs, as being
the Dutch cciin of two Stuivers. See also
the Indian A)ili(iiiiir!i (x.wi. 335).
Double Lorrain. A vai'iety of the
Ddiililr Tdui'iiois struck by Louis XIII of
Fi-ance in 163r) and 1636. It has on the
reverse three lilies and the words dovble
LORRAIN with the date. See Hoffmann
(134, 1351.
Double Merk. S,r Thistle Dollar.
Doublon. The French equivalent for
Doblon and Doubloon. The name is used
on a series of silver tokens ranging from
one eighth to one Doublon struck in Paris
in 1825 for Guadeloupe. See Zay (p.
Doubloon. See Dobla.
Doudou. See Duddu.
Dough. A slang term for money.
Douzain. A billon French coin, which,
as its name indicates, was the douzieme or
twelfth part of the silver Franc and later
the twelfth part of the Ecu. It appears
to liave been introduced in the reign of
Charles VllI (1483-1498), and the genei'al
type re])resents on one side a crowned
shield with three fleurs-de-lis, and on the
reverse a cross with crowns and fleurs-delis
in the angles. The issues for Perpignan
have a P over the cross, and the Douzain
pour le Dauphine has dolphins in the
angles. Among the numerous other varieties
are the Douzain de Bretagne with the
letters R or N on the cross to represent
Rennes or Nantes ; the Douzain a la Coiironne,
and the Douzain au pore-epic, the
latter with a porcupine under the shield;
both of which appeared under Louis XII
(1498-1515) ; the I)ouzain a la Salainandrc
issued in the time of Francis 1 (1515-
1547) on which the shield has two crowned
Salamanders as supporters; the Douzain
a la Croisette of the same monarch, on
which the cross appears in a quadrilobe
the Douzain aux Croissants of Henri II
(1547-1559), having two interwoven crosses
on the reverse ; and besides all these
there are special issues for Beam, Navarre,
etc. Under Louis XIII specimens occur
countermarked with a lis or lily, pursuant
to the ordinance of June, 1640.
There is an obsidional Douzain struck
for the Low Countries during the French
occupation in 1672. See Mailliet (Hi. 9).
Doyt. See Doit.
Dozzeno. The double of the Sesino
((/.*'.), and consequently the third part of
the Grosso. It exists as a coin of Friiico
in the latter ]nirt of the sixteenth century.
Drachm, or Drachmon. The unit of
the silver coinage of Greece, the normal
weight of which in the Attic standard was
4.367 grammes, or 67.28 grains.
Drachma Dripmy Bit
= (i iM-at'hms
= "( UDifhins — 4 Dimlims
= 2 Ornrhms
The iiiime is derived from the Orook
verb cp3--0[i.xi, i.e., to grasp, to liold, litcrall.
y a liamlful, or as much as can be coiiveiiieiitly
held iu the hand to be put in the
scales for weighiu";.
The multiples of the Drachm are:
Diiili'iaclrachiri = 12 Dniihms
lii'iadi-aihui = 10 Unulinis
Oitiiilrailiiu = S Dnuhms
nicliachiii, or Stater
But no single monetary system possesses
all of these types.
The Draehin was o(|ual to six Obols or
Oboli iq.v.).
The first coined piece known to the Hebrews
was the Persian Daric (q.v.). This
is rendered as Dram in the autliorized version.
See I Chronicles (xxix. 7), Ezra (ii.
69), and Nehemiah (vii. 70-72).
Drachma. (Plural Drachmai.) The
unit and basis of the coinage of modern
(ii-cecc since 1833, and also adopted by
Crete in 1901. It is a silver coin of the
same value as the Franc, Lira, and other
coins of the Latin TTnion. and is divided
into one hundred Lepta.
Drakani, or Drahkani. Brosset, in his
llistoirc (Ir Id (Ifori/ie (pp. 159, 169),
states that this name is given to a gold
coin, the same as the Armenian Taht^gan
Drake. A popular name for the silver
miUcd Shilling of Elizabeth, with a martlet,
commonly called a drake, as a- mint
mark. They were usually struck at the
York mint. See Murdoch Catalogue (No.
Dram. See Drachm.
Dramma. A name given to the large
gold coins of the mediaeval dynasties of
Central India, notably the Chandellas
(A.D. 1015-1150). Detailed descriptions
will be found in the Journal of the Asiatic
Societii of Bengal, 1897 (Ixvi. p. 306).
Cunningham (p. 3) cites an inscriiition
from Jaunpur of A.D. 1216, where it is
referred to as eijual to six Vodris, and
adds that this "cci-taiidv refers to the
Greek Drachm of six Oboli."
Dreibaetzner. See Baetzner.
Dreier. A common name for the base
silver i)icce of three Pfciinige or three
Kreuzer which was struck in a number of
[ '
the (icrman States since the sixteenth century.
See Seehser.
Dreigroscher. A iiojtwlar name for the
Iripic (irosclicn which were struck in
Poland, Lithuania, and some portions of
Prussia in the si.xteenth century. At a
later period the Electors of Braiulenburg
issued Dreigrdscher of the value of three
Prussian (froschcn plus four Pfcnnige, with
corresponding larger coins called SeehsgWischcr
and Zwiilfgriischer. All of the
above named were of base silver.
Dreikaiserthaler. A name given to a
variety of Tlialcr struck by the Emperor
Fcrdinantl 1 ( 155r)-15()4 ) which bear the
triple crowned profile busis of himself, the
Em|)eror Maximilian 1, and Ciiarles V.
"^riiey are without date.
Dreilander. A name given to the double
Ciros when the same type was adopted by
three disti-icts or territories. Thus .lean IV
of Brabant (1415-1427) struck a Dreilander
current in lirabant, Hennegau, and
Holland. The name is also written Drielander.
Dreiling. A term formerly emi)loye(l in
the North (l(>rman States,, llojstein,
Iliimburg, Mecklenburg, etc., to indicate the
triple of the lowest exi.sting denomination
in use at the time, or the one fourth of
some standard like the Groschen.
During the French occupation of Hamburg
in ISO!) ii billon piece was issued with
the inscri])tion i. drkiling. An essay of
this coin struck in gold appeared in 1807.
Dreipolker. The half of the Dreigroscher,
i.e., a ])iece of one and one half
Groschen. It was common in Prn.ssia during
the seventeenth century. See Poltora.
Dreissiger. A general term for a coin
of thirty Kreuzer. See Seehser, Zwanziger,
Dreizehner. The popular name for the
silver coins of Dortmund, issued during
the seventeenth century. They had a figure
13 stamped on them to indicate that their
value was one thirteenth of the Thaler.
Drie Duitstuk. See Duit.
Drielander. Sec Dreilander.
Dripmy Bit. A corrnjition of three
penny |)iece; it is an English dialect word
used in Devonshire.
Driittainer, or Dritteiner. The name
used in Monster to designate the Prussian
coin of five Silbergroschen. See Kastenmainichen.
Dschingara. A pale gold coin with Arabic
inscrii)ti()us issued for Gowa in Celebes,
A.H. 1078, and later. It was valued at
four Koupas. Conf. Millies (p. 177), and
Ponrobert (Nos. 899, 901).
Duarius. Tlie cdmnmn name for the base
silver two Kreuzer piece struck for Hungary
and Transylvania during the sixteenth
aiid seventeenth centuries.
Dub. A Persian word meaning thick,
and applied to various Indian coins of the
Pels type liaving a thick or heavy module.
The Prench equivalent is Dabou, and
Zay (p. 287) states that at Yanaon in the
French Indies forty-six to forty-eight Dabous
are ecjual to one Rupee.
The Dub with multiples was also issued
by the Madras East India Company in
1*807 and later. See Neumann (19906),
and Fahu-e, liifni.
Dubbeltje, or Dubeltje, meaning twice,
or double, is the iio])ular name for the
former Dutch coin of two Stuivers.
In the currency of the Malay Peninsula
it is ecfual to two and one half Duits, and is
called by the natives Wang Baharu, meaning
"small change." Conf. Pitje.
The word is still retained in Holland to
designate the silver coin of ten Cents.
Dublone. See Dobla.
Ducat. Also called Ducato and Dukat.
Tiie best known of all gold coins. It is
generally supposed to have been first issued
by Roger 11, King of Sicily, al)out 1150.
This coin bore the figure of Christ, and the
inscrijjtion sit run xre dat q tv regis iste
DVCAT, i.e., Sit tibi Christe datus, quem tu
regis iste ducatus—"To thee, Christ, be
dedicated this duchy which thou rulest.
Pi'om the last word of the inscription the
coin received its name.
The Ducat was extensively copied by the
chief rulei's of Kurojie, aiul has almost universally
retained its fineness. The last
country to i.ssue this denomination was
Tliere are divisions as low as one thirtysecond,
and multi])les as high as pieces of
over one iiuiidri'd ducats. It also occurs in
sipiare and hexagonal shapes. See Zecchino.
Ducat. A gold coin of Scotland, struck
in 1558 after the marriage of Mary Stuart
to Francis, the Dauphin of France. Its
weight is 118 grains. See Bonnet Piece.
Ducat. A money of account in the Venetian
Republic during the fifteenth century.
Coryat, in his Crudities, 1611 (286), has
tlie following :
' Now whereas the Venetian
duckat is much spoken of, you must consider
that this word duckat doth not signifie
any one certaiue coyne. But many
severall pieces do concurre to make one
duckat, namely six livers [ ? livres] and two
gazets, " i.e., Gazzetti.
Ducatello. A silver corn of the Republic
of Venice, which appeared under the Doge
Marco Poscarini (1762-1763). It was evidently
intended for foreign trade, and as
late as 1823 the Ducatello is referred to
in Alexandrian coinage as equal to ten
Medini, or one fourth of the Piastre.
Ducato. A coin struck in both gold and
silver for several parts of Italy but especially
for Naples and the two Sicilies. In
order to indicate the complicated relationship
of these coins to their multiples and
divisions the following table is appended
Ducato d'Oro = 10 Neapolitan Carliui;
Ducato d'Argento = 100 Grani ; the half
of the silver Ducato, of the value of 50
Grani, being also known as the Pataca.
Following the ordinance of April 20,
1818, there were issued the Oncetta, a gold
coin of three Ducati, witli double, (piintuple,
and ten Oncetta pieces, and the Ducato
d'Argento, of ten Carlini or 100 Grani.
In Sicily the divisions of the Ducato,
prior to 1818, has only half the value of
those in Naples, i.e.—
S g 'S s .„ » i i 3
I 13 S S .2 2 g § .S 5
D t, H O '• rj fH Q( p_ tj
Napli's 1 2 r, in 40 100 200 .SOO GOO 1200
Sicily 1 10 20 200 1200
I'spiH-lall.v called
rali'iiiiii liaioccl
Tlie silver Ducato of Ragusa, struck only
in the years 1722 and 1723, had a value
of t'oi-ty Grossetti. See Vislino.
Ducato d'Argento. A silver coin of the
Dauaro size, issued for Naples and Sicil.y,
Ducato di Banco Duit
Apulia, etc., as early as tlie twelfth eenturv.
Roger II (Kuggiero), Duke of Naples
(1105-11:50), and Kin-,' (1180-1154)
struek it in eoneave form in imitation of
the liyzantine tyjies, witii the i-everse inscri])
tion 4* "' -^*' ke in aktekn, i.e., Jesus
Christns regnat in aeternum. It was issued
in Venice under the Doge Girolamo Priuli
(1559-1567), with a value of 124 Soldi. In
Savoy, Duke Philibert II (1497-1504)
struek pieces of the same name, and it is
to be found in tlie currency of otlicr Italian
states. It must, iiowever, be remembered
that these latter Ducats in silver were approximately
of the size of a Thaler or
Crown. See Romesine.
Ducato di Banco. A money of account
instituted by Cardinal Palctti in 1581 by
which he deci'ced that ten Ducati di Banco
were tlie equivalent of twelve ordinary current
Ducati. As it was simply a scheme
for local ]irofit it never went into effect.
Ducato di Camera. Another name for
the Zecchino of tiie Paiial States, whicli
later became a money of account.
Ducaton, also called Ducatone. A silver
coin of crown size first struck in 1598 by
the S])aniar(ls during tiieir occupation of
the Low Counti'ics. The original tyjies had
on one side tlie busts of tlie Arciuliike Albert
and his wife Elizabeth, but the name
had been jireviojisly employed to designate
the Philippus Daahler (q.v.). It was usually
comjjiited at thirty Stuivers.
Tii(> Ducaton was extensively co|)icd in
Savoy, Milan, Parma, etc., and an i.ssiie for
the Dutch Colonies bears the s|)ecial colonial
An obsidional Ducaton was issued for
Amsterdam in the war against France,
KITl' l(i7:!. .SV'c Mailliet (Supi)l. iii. 4-6).
Ducats, always used in the plural, is a
slang or collo(|uial term for money.
Wliyte Melville, in Diyhji iirnnd (vi.),
has the following: "From spendthrift King
-lohii downwards, tlie Cliristian has ever
pocketed tiie ducats, and abused the donor."
Duce. See Deuce.
Duddu, also variously written Dndu,
Dondiiu, and Tuttu. A copper coin of
SoutiuM-n India, the value of wliich vai-ied
according to tiie locality. In tlic Travaii-
[ '
core State there are varieties marked Ara
Chakram, meaning half a Cliakram. See
Elliot (p. 139), who describes two varieties
of the value of four and eiglit Cash respectively.
In the Madras Presidency coins
were issued earlj- in the eigliteenth century,
and in Bengal they were computed
as e<(ual to the half Paisa.
AVhen the French operated tlieir mints
at Pondichery and Karikal, they struck the
Doudou, as they called it, with a rude Heur
dc lis on one side, and a Tamil inscription
on the reverse. There is a dated variety of
1836, with the Gallic eock on the obverse.
These coins were also valued at four Cash.
Sec Zay (pp. 278, 285).
Diitchen. The name given in the provinces
of East and West Pru-ssia to the former
Silbergroschen equal to one sixteenth
of the Thaler. It is very extensively found
in the coinages of Bremen, Ilolstein-tJottorp,
Stralsund, etc., at the beginning of
the seventeenth century.
See a curious treatise on the etymology
of the name by Schroder, in the Niederdeiitschi's
.hthrbuch, 1907 (xxxiii.).
Duetto. A copper coin of Florence,
Lucca, etc., of the value of two Quatti'ini.
It was issued throughout the eighteenth
century and was gradually abolished from
the coinage before 1850.
DufFer. An English slang term for a
counterfeit coin or non-negotiable money.
W. S. Jevons, in his work on Monci/, the
Meehanism of E.rchange, 1875 (xxi. 289),
has the following: "The cheques, bills,
[etc.] are regarded by thieves as 'duffer,"
with wliii'h they dare not meddle."
Duggani. Lewis Rice, in the Mysore
Gazetteer, 1877 (p. 8), states that a copjier
coin of this name, and of the value of half
the Duddu, was in circulation in the abovementioned
The Duganih, or Dogganey, probably a
variant of the above, was a name sometimes
given to the Pice of Bombay, etc.,
when used as a money of account. See
Duit, also variously written Diiyt, Dute.
and Doit {q.v.), is a eoiijier coin of the
value of one eighth of a Stuiver, issued in
the various provinces of the Low Countries
from about 15S0 to the beginning of the
nineteenth eentury. According to the
Munt Ordonnantie of 1586 it was equal to
two Penuinge.
The Dutch Government also issued Duits
in copper and lead for their possessions in
Ce.ylon from 1782 to 1792, and for Java
from 1764 to the early part of the nineteenth
century. See Oord, and Pitje.
The name is retained in the Dutch Indies
as a popular appellation for the current
one cent copper coin of Holland, and
the two and one half cent piece is usually
referred to as a Drie Duitstuk.
Duitole Asarfi. A gold coin of Nepal
of till' value of four Mohurs. See Suka.
Duk. The name given to a silver amulet
resembling a coin, and current in Ainiam.
It usually bears an inscription on one side,
and a iigure (rose, swastika, vase, etc.) on
the reverse. See Fonrobert (2125, 2186).
Dukat. The German equivalent of Ducat
Dumare. According to Kelly (p. 232),
this was a former money of account used
on the Malabar coast and equal to four
cowrie shells. Twelve Dumares were ecjual
to one copper Pice.
Dump. A name generally applied to any
small coin of unusual thickness, irrespective
of the metal or value. Well known
examples are the early coins of Ceylon with
elephants on the obverse; the thick small
half penny of George I of England, issued
in 1718; the Bit {q.v.) cut out of the Sin\nisli
Pesos ; and the centre piece of the Holey
Dollar {q.v.).
Dung-tang, and Dung-tse, are names
given til the Pa-nying Tang-ka by the Tibetans.
See Ang-tuk.
Duodeciaere. Another name for the
Dodrans, which .see.
Duplo. Sec Doblengo.
Duplone. A gold coin of a mimber of
the cantons of Switzerland and adopted by
the Helvetian Re|Miblic in 1800. It repre-
.sented in value a double Ducat or si.xteen
Francs, some of the issues reading IG
sciiw'KiZER P^RANKEN. Qiuidruples and
(luintujiles were occasionally struck.
Dupondius. A multiple of the Roman
As afit r file first reduction. It bears on
the obverse the head of Minerva or Roma,
and on tlie reverse the prow of a galley and
the mark ii, i.e., two Asses.
The Dupondius continued to be coined
under the Roman Emperors but in brass
(in contradistinction to the As, which consisted
of more or less pure copper). Because
in size it was about equal to the As
it was distinguished from the • latter by
placing a radiate crown upon the Emperor's
portrait on the obverse. It was
discontinued under Trajan Deeius and Trebonianus.
Durantingi, or Durantini. A mediieval
money of Clermont-Ferrand, in Auvergne.
Du Cange cites an order of the eleventh
century showing that these coins were then
in common use. They were probably some
vai'iety of Denier or Maille.
Duriglio. The name given to the gold
Pezzetta of Philip ^' of Spain and his successors
to the end of the eighteenth century.
Durih. See Dorea.
Duro. Tlie same as the Peso {q.v.).
But the name Duro was used as a designation
on an obsidional silver piece struck
for Geroua by Ferdinand VI 1 in 1808
(Mailliet xlii. 10).
In the Morocco coinage the gold piece of
twenty Rials is called a Duro.
Duro de Plata. See Vellon.
Duro de Vellon. See Vellon.
Duro Resellado. See Resellado.
Dust. A colloquial term for gold dust,
hence money. Wilkins, in his play The
Miseries of Enforced Marriage, 1607 (iv.),
has the phrase "come, down with your
dust," and Smollett, in Ferdinand Count
Fathom, 1753 (i. 122), says, "1 have more
dust in my fob."
John G. Saxe in his poem Jupiter and
Danae has the line, "open your purse, and
come down with the dust." See Darb}'.
Dvoiak. The name given to the Polish
silver coin of two Grossi. See Szelong.
Dvougrivenik. See Grivna.
Dwi. A word meaning "two," and used
in cMinjunction with the Pana (q.v.).
Dyak. A silver coin introduced by the
(iorkhas into Ne])al and equal to two Paisa.
Sec Suka.
Dynders. See Dinders.